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Bevis Walters

Pre- and Early History of the Pacific Coast

This tape is part of the SSI Historical society Collection and comprises an address to its members, entitled, “Pre- and Early History of the Pacific Coast”.
Mr. Walters talks about the geological and European cultural and exonomic roots of the Pacific North West.

Accession Number Interviewer SSI Historical Society address
Date 1977 Location
Media tape Audio CD mp3
ID 3B Topic




Unknown Speaker 0:07
Madam President, hello, members. I regarding the privilege to stand before you today to pass on to you some of the knowledge I have achieved on rainy days when I rather than sit looking out the window read books. And I would like to mention at this stage, you might not notice that I'm not talking too well. But I'd like to assure you this is just the normal deterioration of the body that comes with age. I don't suffer any pain. But my Labor's are just wearing out on me. So I'm not going to sprite as I used to be. The however this goes to prove that in life, there is no free lunch, you have to pay for everything, even being alive. Now, before I stopped to deal with a subject of which you are expected to hear about, I would like to mention that this is the first meeting of the new year. And while we probably many interesting and iridized speakers to come work for you, at meetings further into the year, I think it might be a good idea to go back to the beginning and just look at the things that we know about this part of the world. So that when somebody stands up and talk to us, we will be able to recall the background to what they are saying to us. And with your liberty and permission, I will no go now go back to the year 500 million be see when our planet was wheeling around in space made of something but we don't know what 350 million years ago, the liquid has had separated from the solid and 100 million years ago, the continents have formed. And while very much in the shapers, we know them now. Now going back onward from that 100 million years ago, I would like to move forward to 40,000 years ago. And at that time, this part of the world was buried under a mile of ice, which had rolled down from the northern part of the world in the form of a Glacia which moved at an average speed of six inches a day. And as I've traveled, it gathered up into underneath rock, sand, debris or whatever was around and carried forward with it. And then when 40,000 25,000 years ago came, all this ice had melted. Now it's important to remember that flowed down. But when melted and justice have disappeared and dissipated. And in doing so it left a lot of debris in the form of rocks, sand, gravel, and what have you. And this lay on the surface of the Earth as a deposit. And we all know we move around this island that we have what we call moraines or deposit from the glaciers. And in some places, you've got gravel, and over the other side of a hill, you've got sand and somewhere else you have rock. And one instance that comes to my mind is at the end of women's road, you go down there, there's a steep bank and every winter, the bank goes away and boulders rolling out. And these were part of the deposit helped to make up the island. But an interesting thing while that when the ice was over Saltspring Island, it wasn't over all over it. It was only over what we know as the northern part of the island. And some 1000 years after the ice had melted. And the last part of the island was covered with this February, a new part of the island came up out of the water and became known to outsiders mount Bruce amount to one. But because it came after the Ice Age, you will know debris on the surface. And an interesting part is that whereas you can all move over North spring island north of the Bergen Valley, you will find the traces of 12 geological ages. But if you go the other side of the coin Valley there's only two geological ages and so that you may better understand that I haven't here A geological map of Saltspring Island, which shows you those marks very clearly. And when I have finished, you might care to have a look at the map, which I put on the table here. Now, we go forward to about 4000 years BC. And people came from somewhere we do not know where, and we do not know who they were. But they came and lived on the island for about 1000 years, and then disappeared, and we know nothing about them. But every year, the universe of versity of Victoria has a day. And every year we learn a little bit about them. And possibly sometime in the future, we'll know all about them. Now, I would like to move forward from 4000 BCE, up to the year 850 ad of our present hero. And at that time, there was a very powerful nation in the island of Asia, and it was roughly in the form of a square. And there was an emperor came to the throne. And he thought I said, I would like to know more about our nation, which is called ba now I want to write this for you as written in Chinese because it is important to what I'm about to tell you.

Unknown Speaker 6:43
Haha, was something like that. And one day they after called his astrologers and learned people to him, and he said, We are rich and important people I would like to know about the nations that surround us. So the astrologers and the Java historians are going together, and they studied the world and then the 863, they brought a map to the Emperor which they each one had signed, and they wrote the date on it. 853. And the Emperor studied this map, and he said, why he said up in the last year was Mongolia, over here is India, the size of Japan on a big ocean. And down here is the China's he was all alone, and we are in the middle of the world. Very important. So in future, we won't call ourselves walk, which meant Kingdom or land or empire. He said we will call ourselves Chun ha. So they added the symbol like this, and in Chinese is pronounced Chun mean metal. And this was assembled for metal. So it came from and the welder survived today and what we call China. Now, this is not important part, the important part. But here was a symbol, which is tight. And underneath was a symbol which meant ocean I don't know what it was. And tie men fake. And it is the same sign as the news today and we know it has not corrupted auditors meeting because the word for rain in Chinese is written like this and it's called with water, rain, water striking the earth and spread out there. However, there is a big rain it is always recognized. Hi talk and the same was soon if you write the word food in Chinese, it's like this. Events are time rather like that. Now this is very important because it confirmed the meaning of the symbol time and way over here. There was no coastline marked and we must remember this is east of China. West of America again this word Thai appeared another day it was another symbol

Unknown Speaker 9:51
and this is the important thing for you to watch my time and take this simple math free And although there's no coastline, it is our big trees. And this shows us that in the world, yeah 853 Somebody had a is across the ocean from China or didn't know about the existence of the northwest coast of America. And as far as can be found out, this is the first reference ever made to the coast of North America. And the map is still in the possession of the University of Peking. And I'm in the process of correspondence with the University of Peking, I have to get a copy of this map. And when I do, I'll Xerox and give you each one a copy, so that you can have a copy of the evidence showing that our coast was known in the 853. Now, the Greenlanders had come down late and led by Leif Erickson, and they had contact with the east coast of North America. But 853 was before the Chronicles and Leif Erickson, which stated started in 900, and something another I forgot probably 910. So the first mentioned in history of the North American continent came from China in the 853. Now, from that date, I'd like to move forward 700 years through the year 1568. And that was the year that some Francis Drake came sailing around the hall and then shipped the Golden Hind and started to gather treasure from the Spanish, who were not well regarded enemies, the Queen and he gathered all the riches he could on her behalf, only keeping about half for himself. And in that year at MTC, he spent about several months of cruelty up and down in Nicaragua, and Valkyrie turned down about there. And at the end of eight months, he had accumulated 26 tons of silver, and eight chests of gold. Now, when we talk about tannins with shipping, we're not talking about tons weight, we're talking about tons measurement, because up until this century, ships were rated as tons and spelled t u and s, burst burden or carrying capacity. And so that when a ship was rated at 100 tonnes, it was not 100 tonnes weight, it was 100 tonnes carrying capacity, and a tongue represented Hogshead, which would carry 100 gallons of wine, and which was approximately four four cubic feet in capacity. And the measurement of a ton today is still four cubic feet after 500 years. So apparently, these kind of he takes tons of silver being had. Were in white, where even a lot more than the measurement. So Sir Walter Raleigh decided that they had plundered Germany ships that would be dangerous to return around the horn because the Spanish ships would probably go lion wait for him. So he decided to return by the Northwest Passage, which was thought to exist in the northern part of the continent. So instead of sailing south, he turned north. And he got up to about latitude 50, which is probably where Sitka is at the moment there. And he knows the land kept on leading to the west and getting further and further west all the time. And as he was troubled by cold and ice and snow, he thought maybe there was no Northwest Passage. So he came back down like I was put into a pot or sheltered area, and gave his band rescue and recreation. They hunted in the hills, I gathered up meat, and birds and things I gathered a huge chest which they filled with snow and put the food in them. They got what vegetable matter they could get. And he decided it couldn't go around the horn couldn't go through the Northwest Passage. There was only one way to go was east and get back to England around the Cape of Good Hope, which he did. And it became the first Englishman to ever sail around the world when he got a little way away from North America, and he will drawing up chart tonight. information or labor for the queen, he thought, well, this land has got a name. I'll give her one and he called it new album. Now Albion in Latin means white. And it was the name that was given to England by the Romans, when they occupied call for 20 years ago, they cross the channel. And they looked across and they saw these waves. They called it the Landon album, and throw that in. As all the journals on the official language was in Latin. Up until about 1700. It was natural that he should use the poetic word album. So he called a new album, that he wrote a long time that map and didn't make a specific place. And although it is known that he caught a new emblem album, it is not known where new album exactly well. So in the late name, dropped, introduced. But about 30 years later, a great captain came from Greece and sailed around the horn and came up from Monterrey, which was the capital of the Mexican possessions on the Pacific Ocean, which is about 20 miles below what we call San Francisco. And he had a load of wine which he delivered to the viceroy. And having an empty ship, he looked around for a return cargo and the viceroy told him. There was none at the moment, but there would be returned cargo at about three months. And he said, rather than just lay back and three months, why don't you go sailing up the coast and see what you can discover about the lions that lie north of San Francisco. So he comes sailing up the coast, and he found the entrance to Puget Sound and went down and sailed around a bit, and made notes and came back and laid them in front of the viceroy. And but he, before he would give him possession on he said, Well, this will cost me a lot of money, I should be paid for this. And the vice versa. He said, Well, I'm sorry, I don't have any authority to pay your money. And then the captain said, Well, in this case, I won't give you the information. He said, Well, why don't you go to Spain. And he said King Carlos how King King Carlos the third is very interested in geography. He said life before him and no doubt he will reward you handsomely. So but by this time, return cargo was ready and I have to divert a little bit here to tell you how these cargoes came into being the Spaniards when they moved up from across Mexico and into California. They built mission stations so that they could bring religion and comfort to the native people. And they made them every 20 miles so that you will have 10 admission and walk that by the time nine four came there was another mission to receive you and give you a comfort. And obviously his mission is converted the population of Christianity. They found without me to do so that they had a huge pool of labor. So they weren't at the ranching business. And about this time, the monasteries, the missions were no longer monasteries, they were rather huge ranches with cattle. And this was the only thing that the country could produce for his Catherine. And they had no value was made. But they every cow had her skin on her skin was a hide and a hybrid of value, most valuable item so that at a certain time of the year, they used to take her to these capitals and raise them to the coast. And they find a clip that they hold of the coastline of California is a huge long cliff. But they would find places where there are little indentations or beaches and then that they would slaughter the cattle there and spread the hives out later down with rocks to dry and then when they were dry, they would stack them up and when I shipped such as a great captain and came looking for cargo, they would make a deal with them as they will proceed down the coast of this beach. And we will have the highest waiting to for the height when they were dry. Were like huge sheets of plywood you could say it so they when they ship coming in it will drop anchor in the bay send the jolly boat ashore and they would throw these skins over the clip and being flat. They would go like this but you land up pretty close to where they wanted. They would lay them across the jolly boat roll on board and put them on board. Now. Important thing about these

Unknown Speaker 19:50
schedule was that you're going to buy them for $1.08 from the mission and take them to Boston and you could sell them for $2 And when you consider that the dollar you paid the missionary had been acquired by trading maybe 10, or 15 cents worth of goods in the form of paid for a little bit of cloth or something. It meant that when you got back to Boston and got your dollar, you'd made almost $2 for every 10 minutes, or 10 cents or 15 cents that you've laid out. So to be very profitable, the trade, show the recap and put on his cargo loaded up pretty tight around Boston, sold them for his $2 put a load of lumber, sailed across to Barcelona. And wet by rode up to Madrid after st King College, the third. And he got an interview with him and told him what I had to go King Carlos said, I don't want to deal with these matters. But in the Scarborough, which is a huge building in the middle of Madrid. He said, I have a naval college down there and he said, you'll go down and talk with my abdomen. So the admiral was very, very interested that they in turn said well, we don't have any authority to pay for this. We're very grateful. And they kept him fooling around so long that he realized in the end that he wasn't going to get anything. And they kept these records, they wouldn't give them back to him. So he went back to Venice, which was a Hollywood of those days, and you got right place to live soldiery ship, and became a retired merchant captain. And whilst he was there, he became friendly with an Englishman called Locke spelled L Okay. And Locke was a merchant trader. And in the course of conversation, he told him about his discoveries on the northwest coast of America, and how it ended this huge inland sea with recall Puget Sound. And he thought that it was your property, there might be a pathway to the Atlantic, or that they might find pearls there or even gold. So this Mr. Locke became very excited and decided to finance a voyage. So he went to ambulance to raise money. But meantime, the retired sea captain reached the age of 68. And then 16 102 He died. And as he had no original record, this man lock will try to introduce everybody, everybody heard their story, but nobody would believe that because there was no evidence. So in the cost of time, Mr. Locke guide and the belief in this legend, also died. And so people didn't believe that God's word was passed around by geographers because it was interesting, but nobody believed exists. Now, of course, I'm talking of this trait of wonderful and the captain's name was wonderful guy. And so the story remained about the thing became a legend and a half forgotten. So, in the year 1620, the Hudson Bay had been headed by explorers on the wealth and the firm. From the Viva further came obvious to the people. And so our group of patrons this year 1620 applied to King Carl's the second for the right to use his land and benefit from and so he granted them the charter and they became known as the Hudson Bay Company, has now started trading across into through Hudson Bay and into the North American garden receiving preferred and the enrichment of has a great predeliction for naming places, after places he saw somewhere else. And when as a hazard, he started building forts along the edge of the Arctic Circle. I thought, well, this place hasn't got a name. We'll call it his looks like South Wales for color New South Wales. And for 200 years, a land around the Arctic coast was known as New South Wales. Meantime, Captain Cook discovered you New Holland became several and people over there have been a lot over the Arctic Ocean they call it a New South Wales so they changed the name from New South Wales to Rupert's land. But that's by the way. Now, the next important data files were concerned in 1741. And Peter the Great of Russia was on the throne and he was a bit of a scholar. And he decided that he would like to know about the farm parts of his huge empire. And nobody had ever really investigated what were they on the far east of Asia, which was the shores of the Pacific Ocean So he got together a group of people under foot this man bearing in charge of them and said you take an expedition, Expedition out there Miko settlement and come back and tell me what it's all about. So very organized. An expedition of this expedition consisted of 945 ox cops was a complete total group right across, they had laborers, they had carpenters, they had motors, shipbuilders, schoolteachers, geographers, butchers, architects, doctors, maybe lawyers. And this group of 945 people left Moscow. And in 1741, they arrived on the Pacific coast, which was met, they had been on the road for three years. But when they got there, they had everything necessary to build a town. So they started to build a town including permanent building churches and all the rest of it. And they built ships. And they sent the ships out into the Arctic Ocean. And they never did reach the mainland, but they reached a lot of Ireland, Ireland, and this became known as the Bering Sea. And Meantime, gearing haven't gone to organize. He went back to Moscow, which took him nearly two years to report they came up with a king Peter had died. And Catherine great was on the throne. And Catherine great was interested, but not in geography. So more or less, the the statue, the settlements on the Pacific became forgotten. But I've just heard that they continue to grow when they build more ships are able to push flow further out. And they were had a pretty strong position, right off the coast of Alaska and roundabout there in 1776, when Captain Cook came up around the horn, and he had been instructed to chop the coast, from the Columbia River, up northward. And also, if possible, discover whether there was a Northwest Passage. And it had been problems that have either covered the passage the British government would allocate 5000 pounds to be distributed as bounty amongst the crew. Well, Captain Cook came signing up the coast and when he got off the northern part of Washington State, which we all know is called Cape Flattery. He came to Cape Flattery and found that cape Petrie began to point out and see your destiny because they are a huge storm sprang up and have wind and ice and snow and sleet and really bad. So he felt his ship would be in danger recapped along the shore, when he went up Cape Flattery instead of turning around, he kept out to sea. And when he got about 60 miles out to sea, he could see Mount Baker very clearly, and the Olympics. So he said, Well, while this storm rages, I won't go in Sure. I'll go up. Sure, keep out to see and I will just follow these snow capped mountains. And so he kept the snow capped mountains in insight and sailed 60 miles out and charted the coast in between that because he was 60 miles out and the wonder of Brooker straits, runs Northwest by West that means it can't be seen he passed by and he saw the Olympics here and then he saw mount our fans up here to say alright Bay and made the coast great. I'd like that not very frustrated with Juan de Fuca and then about up near Tofino, he came to the shore and started mapping again until he got up to NACA. Okay. Now, it's

Unknown Speaker 28:54
a very interesting point that Captain Cook was the world's greatest navigator. But he made two of the greatest mistakes anyone ever navigator ever made. And one of them was sailing up the coast and making a map that didn't show the one who could face and even it's there, completely missed it. And the other 130 years earlier, he had been an anchor in Botany Bay, and decided to sail north up the coast of New Holland. There is a Port Jackson which is one of the finest harbors in the world. And here again, you got to enter between two cliffs and over like this instead of like that, and he didn't he was out to say make a use maps, and he passed it by so here we have two of the most of the important inland waterways, Sydney Harbour and the one group of straights which he completely missed out and found we know those the only two mistakes that he made. So he kept on sailing off the coast and charted and he came to knock down which seemed to be a nice harbor shelter to go give his man rest and recreation got some provisions in water and all the rest. And he says about Dr. Ahn tried to go north to discover the Northwest Passage. But he had found the coach kept on leading out and when he got up to latitude 60 degree Northwest for just about Alaska, he killed his heart. And that couldn't be a Northwest Passage. And whether we're setting on there was a danger arises No. So we went back to how I understood where he met his death. And how his officers took charge and sailed back to London and reported all the information to the admiral recently, they took note of it. And there was a captain Barclay, who was a great adventurer. And he heard about the riches that were to be gathered over the sea otter. And he sailed up onto the coast one year after Cook, which was severed over a couple of years after Cooper 7082. He got up here. And he went into Doctor and found that Adrian was already having a had acquaintance with Captain Cook, were friendly. And Tuesday was my quinoa and he made a deal with my quinoa that he would buy some land and put a permanent structure there. And by this time, the world knew all about the trade entity, other firms and big profits over to come to them. So at that time, there were about 30 ships working up and down the coast. So they all started to look there was a port port because it was the only inhabitated spot North Monterey. And they became very active. In the meantime, the Spaniards had always believed that they own the coast all the way up to the pole, house in the year 1431. The Portuguese and the Spaniards really great navigators as well, but they're always fighting each other. If I were at that time, 14 01, Gregory was on the rooftop in Rome, in the center of learning. And in order to stop the fight, he selected a longitude. I can't remember which one, but it is down through the Pacific Ocean. And he said, right, everything, that site is Portuguese, everything. There's tons of Spanish for the Spanish. Under the terms of this apple bull, the Spanish considered they owned everything up the coast. When they heard about the British activity up there. They thought this was endangering their ownership of the land because they had done nothing to explore or to have any settlements on it. So they decided that they would have to remove the British presence and establish their own more thoroughly. So he's had a fleet of ships up to them. And they sailed in their own became very friendly with the captains of the ships that were an anchor, and then decided it would be a nice thing to give them a dinner. Or we invited them all on board to dinner and they wined and dined them well and where they felt full and happy, and decided to go home. He said, Well, I'm sorry, gentlemen, you are my personal heroes and prisoners of the King of Spain. And he kept them all personal. So he sees the ships, put the Spanish flag on them and gave them Spanish names, and shipped everybody from Naco down to Mexico as prisoners. And this caused great indignation in England when the news caught. So the they have been considerable friction with Spain. So the Parliament of angers or METRON decided that they would have a war with Spain and they voted a million pounds to make preparations for border bill more warships and all the rest of the Spanish court a lot of these preparations are not prepared for war themselves. So they offer to make restitution and repayment and refried to the prisoners and Mexico which was acceptable. To the summer there was a treaty drawn up between Spain and aina dealing with this young man by the name of Vancouver who had been on the voyage with cook in 1770 was put in charge of a fleet of three vessels which were to sail out around the home and meet with the Spaniards and take delivery I've knocked him but he was also retold on the way up the coast. He was to make a thorough chart of the portion which captain had Cook had made while he was standing out to sea and steering by the mountain. So he came sailing up the coast from the Columbia River making charts. I was managers to make map. The British may charge and the difference between a map and a chart is a map gives you outline. A chart gives you features that shows mountains, rivers, streams and so on If you got a map, you will know all about it but if you want to sail the ship you better have a chart. So he got up when he got up to Pewter town, he reckons, recognize the importance of this. But in the meantime, Captain Barkley had signed up there and he realized that resemble the stories he had heard about wonder Hooper's travel so he gave her the name of Wonder Cooper Street before that the Spaniard have been there for they call it various, he gave her the name of a wonderful prostrate and unlike a lot of Spanish names, it didn't stick this one stuck. And this is what we've got today. So when Vancouver and back and came up to the wonderful food rotate, he sailed in, inside, and he noted that only the name was given to the space. So he called a Puget Sound and on a one of the authors became known as pitcher town. And he sailed around the, on the east coast. But in the meantime, when the the viceroy of Mexico, Mexico had decided that he would have to come up in addition to removing the British from Doctor He will have to make establishments that have proof of occupation. So a year previously and the School of navigation in the Scotland Spain for young left hundreds had graduated with honors and distinction. So they were set out to assist the viceroy in to explore navigate and make the settlement on the coast. So they named these were three of them were Quadra Eliza and Quimper. So, the referee decided he would keep two of them over the helpers. But he sent Quimper and Elijah up to doctor to be there to take part in the ceremonies of handing over to Vancouver. And having arrived ahead of their time, Elijah decided he would map a country down from souk and the first thing I did was go ashore to can build a control foot wooden cross which he sat up there and buried a button when saying that this land was possessed and then even pink collar suicide was found on such and such a date. And then he traveled down the coast making geographical notes and after leaving food, he found a very nice in there. And he decided that this was where they will name and he called it rather reom. Now, in every trade they have a word which are peculiar to that trade, navigation is exactly the same there are words that are peculiar to navigation. And the three that are concerning us here are the word anchorage which means a place where you can safely anchor a ship that is not completely protected, whose harbor which is no go into. But then beyond that is a word called roadstead and roadstead is common to not have a language to indicate a safe place where you can bring a chip alongside and tie up right along the bank in safety and the word rod in Spanish they call it a rail Rod was rochestown

Unknown Speaker 38:43
Now an interesting part about this railroad Stan then he moved on a bit further came to another little place and he went in there confronted with a native and found it was called come a sock. And so he marked it on his chart as canal to come and canal and Spanish doesn't mean what it means in English canal as viewed in British Columbia does not mean what English means it has a Spanish meeting and in Spanish are canal is a narrow in it. Like a small bowel contracted Gulf are very narrow in touch a canal, a canal and anchorage has opened both Santa canal in Spanish and in British Columbia opened with one. So when he was at anchor and he got friendly with the natives and they talked about it and then they told him the name was coming. And he said what was coming at me and they said well it means noisy waters or rushing waters or something similar and they were referring to the noise the waters running in and out to coach when slowing and high tide and they will come out on the Tiger dock quickly and they will be turning them over noise and you must remember there was no sound pollution In those days, there was only the sound of the wind of the trees, the birds calling the sound of the way up on the seashore. So sounds traveled a long way. And these sandals water apparently pay well. And as they had to have indicators to, when they talked about a place they had called this, a canal to compensate. So Elijah sailed away and was a news Herald up outside the Gulf Islands. And he gave the island names who went north and he called the first one for Turner. And the second one he called Galliano, and the third one Valdez and the fourth one, Gabriel Allah. And these names stuck, but the islands inside now he didn't know anything about. So he had already named the water around this site around renewed recruit for this around the South side of Vancouver Island, he had already named this hero straight in honor of one of his a captain, I think, or one of his other ships. But anyway, the word hero is part of why I have a name. The Spaniards all have a lot of data in this particular Spanish, whose name was how I had six was the name, which I do not remember. But the putting in Spanish, although they wrote the H and put it Jairo in pronunciation. The age was never pronounced. So amongst the Spaniards, it was heroin and down the streets of Cairo, around about the end of South as a Eastern Vancouver Island. And when he got up the island, he knew the right more islands behind behind Cabriolet and Valdez. So he gave them the general name of archipelago, the arrow and marked on his maps as acapella Dorado and I remain that way. Well up into the time off to the headquarters built in Victoria. And so Danny Shire knows and he has made a rendezvous with his other ships had certain latitude and which was test waypoint grey ones. And so they gathered they and they sailed around the, the phonogram came to anchor at a place called which we call Spanish banks. And they were having rest and recreation, they owned a couple of Vancouver's turning around. And to his surprise, he found them there ahead of him. Like our friendly and he showed him his permission to go and take possession of an octa from the Spanish and quadrophonic Wemba. And Eliza knew that this was the same mission they had, they came friendly and visited each other. And then Vancouver went on with mapping his shift with file. So he got to know they came up, they handed over microwave. And so from then onwards, it became regarded as British possession. But it didn't have a name. So, Captain Cook had a painter who was a Duke of Norfolk, when he was up trying to fight through the Northwest Passage, he called it you know, if and this extended from about 55 to 50. And then, Captain next year, Captain Barco, sail up there. And he got up about 50 degrees. And he saw a figure that you know, fantastic down 30. So he called it new Connor, in honor the Duke of Columbia. And later on, somebody else came around hanging around the shoulder. For those who also knows lander, they thought, Well, gotta give it a name. And we have our how Queen Victoria is of the house of Hanover. So I will name this Hanover in her honor. So they named that Hanover. So you had new Norfolk, new column, and they had New Hanover, Hannah. This Hanover extended to about the south part of Vancouver Island. And somebody else came along and I said, Well, this hasn't gotten any name and I'll leave it under the king new Georgia show you have the liaison between the Thompson the Columbia River and Alaska as fodder for names for the new Norfolk new collar, you have and new Georgia. And Meantime, Simon Fraser gonna come over the mountains and he looked around he said, This reminds me of Scotland. I've never been there, but my mother told me about it. I'll call it New Caledonia. So he had a bunch of news all over the place. Meanwhile, a American had becoming very aggressive about the country that laid between the parties, a parallel, which was the marker for Canada, which had not been recited, have you previously? And they said, well, you'd better do something about this flatlines on the Pacific coast, we lose it, or they call it Oregon Territory in Oregon Territory extended from California to the Columbia River. And so the British had, by this time, the trading post had come over the mountains. And they had trading posts all the way down the Columbia River. And they said, Well, we've got to get renamed. We'll call it Columbia. So the overall name was Columbia. But it depends where you're where the where you had five different choices of how nine. And about 18 118, the capital of New York had heard about the riches that were to regain from govern curve on the Pacific coast. So they sent an expedition around the coast. And they established a fork or a depo, in the mouth of the Columbia River. And they call it Astoria and honored John Astor, who was the principal financial adventurer. And they started trading there. But meantime, the British had come down the Columbia. To their surprise, when they got there, they found the Americans, how they got it for about 20 miles upriver. I didn't think I'd get to what came before the Americans. And the Americans were very, very well organized expedition. They were well supplied with provision. But I want to be very good in the tire business, as a chief customer became the British port Vancouver, who bought about a the agreement by which the Hudson Bay rounded rich, the Hudson Bay Company rebranded the whole of Vancouver Island. Together Fosun expired, and they applied to the helm also named Harry homeowners in England, they haven't renewed. And meantime, the British Crown had developed colonies in different parts of the world, and found them a good thing to have. So they wrote back I notified they had some great company, they were extend their charter for five years, but it would probably be turned into a colony. But they should proceed to develop it any way they could. I gave them permission to sell lands, and they were allowed to better retain 1/10 of the money for their own use. And the other 90% was to be used to develop the colony. So they didn't they were starting their colonies and Rosicrucianism. Right, whatever it may be, you need needed to see. So the government sent out a governor whose name was Blanshard. And I'll just tell you briefly about Blanshard because he was up and coming out a young lawyer in London, and he told him he would like to get into the overseas service, become a governor. I knew that they needed a governor in

Unknown Speaker 48:27
vain to resign and he resigned a while go after that job. And they appointed him governor, but they didn't give him a stipend. But they told him he could arrange with the Hudson Bay Company, the veteran stipend for now. And but he couldn't have 1000 acres of land when he got there. So he came out to vote Victoria and when it was just shipped, arrived and bought they people enjoyed their cannon salute came ashore. The population was less than 200. About the mall a man met in one of the store rooms and big and welcome they had drinking and all those about nine o'clock at night, the government got a bit tired. And he said, Well, you showed me two rival quarters, please. And I said what quarters he said, my quarters boring. I knew there's no we haven't run a quarter. And then he woke up to the fact that he really can't get the treatment. So the only thing he could do was he went back and stayed on the ship. And after they were building and the government said don't worry, we'll we'll do some quarters. But there was always a shortage of nio labor or something like that. And the quarters never stopped. So we stopped Cambodia shipping at Korea to the Government House. And apparently Governor Douglas thought he got too comfortable and so he converted into capital capital ship to go over to certain ones and farms and period to town bring cattle over. So every now and again the government the government house fund provides design one and had the smell of cattle in Toronto but they can't agree they will never be able to get housing He said, Well, now I want my 100,000 acres. No, sir. Well, the only available land of Sook and you said you can't have a government house 30 miles outside the town. And I said, Well, the only land that is available out there by Beacon Hill Park, as we call it, the Rocky. Rocky one currently thinks she can have that 1000 Total because no other land was available. The first government house was built out there. And that's why it's still called Rockland today. However, the Hudson Bay Company wouldn't pay him any money. And he was running short of funds. So he decided and he was so proud of the 1000 acres. And he asked Gallagher Douglas James, don't get us for a deed for the land. He said that doesn't belong to you. It belongs to the government. He says you use it by the government, but when you leave, it belongs the next government. So he knew he was beat. So he picked up manufacturing going on pointed James gobbler, Douglas after Governor which was later confirmed. So James Douglas was not the first governor he was the second. And in 1851, where he was heading south only had letters a legislative assembly organized, he further had better find out fully down about the land was he redundant, and he didn't know like positions around certain places. And then he there was the canal, the arrow, the name still stuck, I mentioned like the arrow, archipelago, term stack. And people there was a regular trade with Cowichan because when the Puget Sound farms started to breed cattle, they started the ship the moment they enter the mainland. And the Indians who had been acquired extra wives are no more pickers to carry with any hiring them out for pulling plows and three rounds to put the plow. But when they kept on starting to come in, let's call it a bit of a labor of great labor closures. Because the cattle could be federal, they didn't have to be paid, whereas the union wouldn't have to be paid, because it became a vast number of unemployed. So Governor dichos hit on the idea of teaching them to grow potatoes and the couch from God even very fertile. And most of the other work indeed read out the character gotta gotta hunt and grew potatoes, which were able to ship back to Victoria. Her which who were able to sell to the Russians who came down for the ninth, no, no smoking provisions about nobody had ever ventured beyond because of sanction marriage, like there wasn't water. The currents were very sharp and there was a legend grew up that it was full of well pools of reefs. I know nobody wanted to go out there with a ship on account for danger. So government divers, so today we will find a way up inside the island to White House on island, which was known as winter hose an island until 1835. When the name was changed to Newcastle Island, it might be a quicker route for the ship. We're carrying coal to come down and inside because sometimes it took two weeks to get from Victoria and account to the wind up to Newcastle island. So I thought he could just cover a passage through they are shortening the voyage. So he decided to go up but the beaver was his usual method of transport for the beaver was a paddle steamer, and they had a draft of 17 feet and he thought it would be very risky to take this up the canal, the arrow, so he thought I'll use a shallow draft vehicle with a good number of paddlers and then are being controlled on a bear no danger of being damaged by these breeds. So he decided to do it by canoe, but it wasn't going to be any Mickey Mouse can. Like we know it should run around the top of a car. Some years previously, the the people in front of Vancouver had been very surprised to see a huge Haida walk and who completely enlightened down was skins. And they were this was the biggest canoe they'd ever saving. So they bought it. And they use it like we would accompany cars was there. And then you could get down to pieces down to take messages or mail down there, or get anywhere around and quickly. Were quick travel, and it was peddled by 20 patterns. 10 regressed, and it had another room for cargo in the middle and still room with a bag showing this canoe, which Governor Douglas made his messaging, but it's this huge height of walking, which by the way, only drew 43 feet in the water. So I want to go on he said out he had his trading partners in place and provisions in the middle. And at the back of the corner we had an armchair in which he said you Now there are a couple of Douglass was very strict on ceremonial and anywhere he went for the first time he wanted to be seen. As a governor, he didn't want to happen to him. What happened to the Reverend stains five or six years, Steve is previously, the Reverend stains had come out from England to be the first person in Victoria. And when they started her way, arrange an interview with a king of Hawaii. And in order to impress the king, he decided he should have us overnight and turned him and his wife had an evening grasp a lot of gold and silver great about it. So they picked the government so great, I'm gonna put it on the surveillance uniform. And my name is I should enter the king. He came in to meet the king, with his servant behind him and the king rose flag and then various to seven, because we look more important when they go. Governor Duggan said once this happened again, to me, he was just different from the other people. He always wore his top hat. Nobody's dressed in proper clothes. So the crew sat down and they last week and during to sail up the canal, that arrow going through feet 20 patterns, and he hadn't clerk seated behind him and cook, provision and every everybody knows that. And this is why I call it an expedition. Not a trip. It was an expedition because it really well. And he had a great knowledge of the land. And as he traveled up this land, he took a note of the land and the possibilities are rich. And he knew that when you're covering soil it was growing that mentors and acumen accumulation of decaying leaves for 1000s of years, this would make a good vegetable garden. And if he saw a shallow growing or volatile, he knew this was suitable fruit trees, and the rocky outcrops of grass growing around there. So this would be suitable for grading. So without getting out of his boat, he made a note of all these things, and finally arrived up at this red horse on an island, whether they're getting calmer now called Newcastle on now, I cannot go any further at this stage. And I cannot give you the details of the governor's trip. But by most amazing coincidence, I just happen to have about 50 books, which are reprints of the GOV story or the expedition. We've got one each one of you can take it home and read it at your leisure and having read it you can become an authority the same way I did just by reading Thank you

Unknown Speaker 57:53
could you take these and this is a an actual refund. Thank you very, very much, Dennis. That was your last name. I forgot to mention these services also. A very nice little Christmas switch for everybody. But it's also very good