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The Japanese Charcoal Pit Kilns

Stephen Nemtin




Speaker 1 0:00
Can you hear me?

Speaker 1 0:10
Okay, I'm just going to jump right into my plan. So my plan is, to start off, we're going to have the first photo. And that's gonna be up there. But we're gonna start off, I'm gonna take you back in time. That's the plan, we're gonna go back to a million years ago. So everybody's gonna be ready. Here we go. 20 million years ago, we were all doing this. We're like this, we're 50 million years. And after 50 million years, you what you're doing is number one, you're playing with rocks. And you're using rocks as tools. You're also playing with sticks. Imagine this is a long stick. And it's got a point on the end, because rocks stick. And the other thing is fire. And we're playing with rocks, and we got a stick, and we're still poking in the fire. And we got a sharp point on the and you know, if you've got your grandchildren here, the first thing they do is they get a stick collection. And they're playing with six. Okay, so now 15 million years goes by, and you're not doing this anymore. You're doing this. And as soon as you start walking with your head up, right, your brain starts changing. And you start condensing tools, right here, this is a tool, it is extremely sharp, then I sharpened with this rock is my mapper. And this was this kid's gonna be in the same. And I'm just gonna pass these two around. So you get a feeling. But we're going to be talking about at 5 million years ago. The next thing that happens is fire changes to this learning how to make a spark from different type from Flickr and then with the app, so the learning to make the spark and their fleets and they've made tools in their newest new everywhere. This is the 7000 year old arrowhead so 7000 BC so it's really 9000 years old. These around your primitive it is okay, so now we're at 5 million BC. And we're walking up. And we have learned about cutting animals using all their entrails and everything. We're making things building things, doing things. Then, let's see we move now to 2 million years ago, and we're definitely horrible at this. And we are also starting figuring out shelter. And at we have a little 900,000 years ago, we were able to take that spark and start a fire with it. They could do that even before that, but they could do the method of the stick using a stick to make a fire at 28,000 BC. in Czechoslovakia, they found in a little you know little a hole in the ground. They had there was a little fire pit and maybe a hole that was like this big and inside that they found play figures little clay figures figurines of people this is a clay figuring little figure but it is a musical instrument

Speaker 1 4:51
so I will keep doing music in here because it is the evolvement that goes with their brains and Through History. So little clay figurines, and they probably got that idea, just their hands when you make a little circle like that and blow. I guess I got that. So then we jump so you can see even our brains are really going. Also, at this time with all habits, you're using our hands, we're getting better at making things. We're now into shelters and into caves. At 10,000 BC, they call this the real, a real change is happening. And this is probably around this time, you'll see people not only just making little, little figures like this, but here they are doing a pot heating of a pot and making it a ceramic pot. Simple, got a bit of coals, they've got six all around the heating up here was not going to break and that was how they made cuts. Then we move to

Speaker 1 6:22
this is a New Mexico, they are making small plots using done as the cutter. So this formation of the kiln, just using a small kiln is also evolving. Okay. Here we have a very basic called Sunni means charcoal, in Japan Japanese. Here is a very basic charcoal pit. And if you look up at the top of the of this photo, you will see the beginning of raccoon raccoon pottery, very small hole in the ground, they've got cold and it's tucked in there. And you're making pots. Now this is a basic Sumi charcoal kiln the very first and here this is a meter by a meter. So just get a hole in the ground meter by a meter. You fill it up here you can see at the top up there, he's got six and he's making a better polls like this. So there's no better polls do you put your wood in and then you cover it with six and and everything is starting to burn these top six or even burning these coals or burning them. The sticks are covered with a layer of sand or dirt. So we now have a kit kill a very tiny bit kill. And during the war, they would make charcoal like this overnight. So if I like this smolder, I have an air exit here. And I have to watch the whole thing with cams is your airflow, how much airflow you don't want your wood to burn and when you don't have any charcoal so you just wanted to get all the moisture out of your wood and then they would watch it overnight itself up this airflow when they think it was done which they could tell by the smoke and there you go

Unknown Speaker 8:38
my lovely assistant

Speaker 1 8:45
this right here, then we have the development of the kills further. These on the right on the left are called mound gills they are above the ground. So take a bunch of wood pile and cover it all and then started burning someplace and it has to be an air exit and all through Europe. England every that's how they made charcoal was mountains in other places. Okay, here's a slope kiln over here up there and here is a slope used to make pots. So they have the fire here. It would go up and then these are called it kills. They are in the ground and the charcoal is made in the ground in the ground. Know what you're looking at here are killed designs from everywhere. And I want you to do Let me look at the shape. Because that's the important part here. If you look at these shapes, I can sometimes call it a teardrop shape, that light bulb shape, years and more circular shape. And this is your old, your first Japanese killed, shape or whatever shakes. I call it a teardrop. And you'll see the very first one, if you just if you ignore the two dots on each side, you'll see the A is where there's a fireplace. And these are fears but look into that. If you look at Roman Empire kills with Roman about downs, you're gonna see all these same shapes. And what's really fascinating to me, is the shape of the kiln is the shape of the uterus. You should be proud because you have the design of the first real kilns and furnaces and even with the opening for everything but anyway, that's the basics of furnaces now next oh this is Oh ready to go yet um now these are two heritage stones on Dalian and our cemetery. They were two young men in the 1890s and they were 19 years old. They came from what the young man in Japan and they were working in logging and had a lot of accidents. Here we have the Gulf Islands there on Delhi is over here there are five kills just over that you have to pass on main island there are four kills spread out in different places and there were also kills on precose There were killed enter Island

Speaker 1 12:19
and here are the two on Saltspring right here and then there are also people there's five on Dalian also I talked to a friend of mine Mary O'Hara who said there was also went up by the salty next week okay here is a killed on galley and I was with behind private property that I first restored. You see the mound shape. That's here it is looking into the kiln. Now there's two Rubicon that helped us find out that this is called the Sunni Aki no chi, which is the charcoals ancient charcoal Society of Japan. And we found out that they have a bat like when I first did research, I found one little tablet but in Asian studies library, etc. And I can only find one but we found out that there's over 100 designs based on this sort of original design. So here's your fireplace well I called it a fireplace but it's really an outlet for the air we would start to fire so it's just an outlet right

Speaker 1 13:45
oh I see that. This is the fire will be lit from this end. Once this is all case, which is all filled in. No right over here. And right over here are two air flus that go up on top next fixedly. You can see can't see very well it's right there. Another next one is right there. One is right there. And then up here it goes all the way up. There's three holes next week. Okay, good photo up there. And right in there is an error right there is the airflow. I love this right there, those three rocks. Next, there's a picture of it. And it's beautifully shaped very Japanese. I like rock formations next. Now, here are the diagrams of no you have one of these skills. You have two counts here. One is the first one that you saw when you came in, which is called the oval shape. And it's twice the sizes it's almost and then you also have one that is This smaller the teardrop. And in the teardrop shape, you have a flu year of flu year, and there's a where the air comes out. Now the whole thing would be covered. That was that next photo, please. When you load up your account, this is coming up the while almost at the entrance that little further again, you'll see that logs are laid the length of the kiln. And on top of those logs is a floor there's two buttons, okay, here's the logs for your air is a log across here. And this is flooring, lots of different logs here. So it's called the crib. And on this trip is how they loaded loves. Here is the entrance to the kiln that is now historic site. And in this historic site, this tree started over here 100 And over 100 years ago, 130 years 20 years ago, and it has grown to its enormous tree. And when the Japanese people came to celebrate this site, they felt that the tree was protecting. And okay, next photo please. Here is in a different angle more of the tree. Next photo, please. Here you see the roots of the tree, I did not want to dig up the roots of the tree and left the roots. Here is a person you see the height of the count. Oh, that's okay. It's like five and a half feet a few inches. And seeing if you're feeling here that oh, it's the same way. Except on main island. There's a keel that is nine feet high. In same exact circle with the same entrance. Next photo, please. Here, here it is, here's one of your ERA that's exactly 400 almost a half a meter apart. And there's one on the other side and then only goes to the air so that when it's burning your air can go out here out here and out on the other side. And that's where you can control how much you burning you'll get the whole thing is covered don't want to burn up but you don't have any job. That's it this is a sign that the walking on be walking on occasion chi here. They want the other thing Jin Chi all the immigrants that went to see some Japanese they're the Buddhist Society of the Japanese people in CSUN they are the water never changing chi which means the like the Dalian dresses, if we ever get on the outside, this was the Japanese galley season in the offing from what most of them came from what they are. And what is the base system most famous for charcoal and I brought a piece it's called being your challenge in your in your job. And it's a it's an oak, maple oak branches, and it makes it's like scissors or steel. Okay, so when I if I had a piece of stick, then I was burning the stick and I could take the temperature of the stick and it's burning, I probably get to like me five 600 degrees we'll find it this charcoal. As soon as I start burning it, it's gonna be burning it like this is the most famous is burning it with 900 or even 1000 Yeah, all bundled them together and burning it over the 1000 degrees or even more than that. So next slide please. And this is that next slide. Just saying Keep going, keep going. He This is a site keep going. I'm gonna keep going because I want to make sure that this is one of the flutes This rock was exactly the same rock when I found it covering the hole. You can pass this around and Next slide please. And him and there you are seeing the coverings. The top of the fluids going

Unknown Speaker 19:53
to be going okay

Speaker 1 19:58
the second year that If we had a celebration with the Japanese community and seats in the next year, people said I haven't because I'm not a great Biller, but I made an information shelter, which told us all about the chocolate chips. And this is I own a camp in November very she was our governor 2001 And she and this is Mary Oh hot. who use the rose. We're economy. We're sitting right there. Rose Mary was from Dalian in night, she was born in 1929 when she became a teenager, Mary Ohara. None of this history would be happening. If she helped me contact the Japanese communities and encouraged me to write this history. And marry on Ireland's use a teenager move to Salisbury with their family and live more autonomy property and built themselves a little house and marry I did not want any of this. Marry was roses babysitting.

Speaker 1 21:21
Okay, now this is the people from the Wakayama Crimson Tide. This man who is the baker but also the traditional sword dancers. And he made me mad. This is a so he is a mazing gardener. Jim Tanaka was the president. This guy was from the International museums society. In Burnaby. He was the president. This is Mary O'Hara. This is my son Joe, with my son, my son, Eli, who helped me to get out a lot Joe did all the photos and this is more you Saki. Saki is the Japanese historian. For a lot of Japanese in Canada. He's written a book to support the decision community. He's written many other books to me is only this talk. And he and I hit a round been looking for jobs. And that was an amazing experience in itself. Next weeks, this the charcoal, the charcoal mainly was used for the canning industry. And this is a little wood stove that you'd see on all the animals table and this is a soldering iron. The charcoal which was older that they use or make all their charcoal, this chart that also was sold to all the batteries and with this soldering iron 10s of Saturn in the 19 1890s and early 20 years early 19 hundred's the Japanese are the fisherman and also a Caucasian ladies and they would bring the fish in the natives would cut the fish and the Chinese would do this on the Catholic go to boy, but it had to have a hole in it. Every can. And for the wind blow up. The steam would come out. Then when they came through. You're beyond that and the Chinese workers with charcoal with solder all those holes. There were 1000s of cans that went to Japan in those days. Next week. Here is the Chinese guys soldering the cans and there there is the woodstove right there. And they're soldering away these this little top little holes on top of the can and then a little piece of metal underneath. Next thing this is this is the explanation of everything on Kalyanam. What's the again start sites to the dedicated to the courage determination of the pioneers who emigrated from the Wakayama Prefecture. The site commemorates the pioneering spirit and leadership and accomplishments and the restoration of the killing was from Adam walking on the 35th anniversary and they came again and nine years later in another celebration. Next week, these are the this is the canary in steep suit. These are the Japanese fish boats and up on top you will see well these are the that's Yari with the soccer family who built the cabins here, which we're gonna get into soon after this photo Oh, there we go. Okay, so now we're moving through Salzburg. Oh, I almost forgot. From 6000 BC to zero 1000 BC. They, the kilns, okay, yeah, you seem to make charcoal. But the kilns will also use like furnaces. So if you had a one of those kilns covered over and you've got you think you got coals in it, and you're burning. And then at the beginning, in some places, they would blow air into those kills, and get the temperature really hot. So, from 7008, up to the zero, they learn first, to do two things, you take a bunch of rock, throw it in the kiln. Okay, let's say that rock with Tim in it, go kill rock with silver, rock with copper. Well, I got rockin with Ron, and I throw that rock into the kill. And then I get a gulp, then the, the, the copper, and every other different counts come out of the rock, because you're brilliant at hiding. The first is Tim, here's a piece of tape on the end of a string

Speaker 1 26:37
so not only were they figuring out how to do metal work and everything else, there's a lot of other things going on. And many brain cells are really activating then they could do copper and you see the copper side here and they're making copper another 1000 years later

Speaker 1 27:08
then at around 2000 to 1000 they were making steel because you need really high temperatures. So they had to figure out how to get the sensors way up in order to melt the iron. But then you got iron and copper

Speaker 1 27:30
eagles are in the key of D and whale Stewart. So your eagles

Unknown Speaker 27:45
they were doing runs nobody has to get you over here

Speaker 1 28:00
now we moved to South screen. And here we are working way your I can't say enough about your crew of your parts. They are amazing men and they were fantastic. Help is I mean working with him as a job. Next slide. And then add now if you look at Justice Justin up here and he's holding a big slab that as I say this to get to different kinds of kilns the ones that you saw and Eliana which are the small teardrop when that kill was covered. Okay, it was covered with this kind of sand and then when you can tell when the killer was ready by the smoke but when they knew the kill was ready, they would stop the oxygen by stuffing up the holes and the entrance that's and then we'd wait until living die down and then they would open up and they would have charcoal we learned that this huge Kilmer you have here is called the oval style and makes the famous being your time and it's a whole different process. You see that when he's holding the ceramic clock is like this day

Unknown Speaker 29:27
So next slide please. They would fill up the killed up with with and make a ceramic top like this. over the entire

Speaker 1 29:42
day that whole kill man was covered in a top like this. So it's got amazing steel seal them when they knew that their kiln was about ready and the charcoal was ready. They would break open Have a bit and break open this talk while it's burning, and they open it up, and they'd have to be saying you have to be standing back because you feel the heat is incredible. And they would have a long long rip. And while it's open than that the reason they open it up is they're giving it a humongous lapse of air. If you imagine that every person in this place with a piece of wood and has covered you all over and they've opened it up and you Aaron blasting in there to get the last bit of moisture out of you. Because the hotter the wood the less moisture then the better your burn is gonna be a better your charcoal. Also, the charcoal is not only got moisture, but it has these called Pyro mimic acids. And I believe acids, the smoke that went out of your kiln and can't condense it into a liquid. The Japanese today use that liquid Indian to spray their plants and found out that it increased it so there is a whole new realm of biochar which is using charcoal to replenish for US soil. Also, they would sink charcoal in rivers as filters to clean up the river. So here, here is okay, here's the here's the side of the year overkill. Here's your extracts right here and we'll go in and then in your cam here they don't have to please Hey, there it is. Yeah, we're so young now right here there's a fire a little glycolic fireplaces. And over here there's an outlet and right up in here there's another one next photo please. I tell you if it works for you really go

Speaker 1 32:33
live without these two women who have amazing vision, perseverance furthers you would not have this history here. If

Speaker 2 32:51
you wouldn't have the name of the man, there's only one person who made chalk on his name was

Speaker 1 33:03
oh, I'm gonna get that's okay. No. But they're going to stimulate at this destination that they kill itself is by submittal. And right here this gentleman right there is Chuck socket, who is a fan some of its and when I was doing the juggler, I first fell into one of these unexpectedly next Okay, before we go, when I go to this is one of the courses it shows a better picture. I gotta go back to that one. Before we get back another. Okay. This was the most amazing thing for me. When I came here to help you this struggle killed, we got it all out. We made it look really nice. Everything was done. And there was something about the slope of the hill that bothered me and so I went there and hung around and just dig a hole here and difficult here and had a hole in front of the buyer. As a buyer, I mean outlet and I dug a hole like right here and I weighed down see how this depth this depth was totally even with the fire just above it. It would have only gone to maybe a few inches above to there. But when I dug down on here

Speaker 1 34:50
I take that and I find that there is a sub floor in the hill. Then that was covered with soil You're back a couple of keep going, keep going. Keep going on. Okay. So emphasis, the ascent floor was made a split rail, cedar. And laid underneath and it was covered with soil. And it's supposed to be covered with soil. And it was sort of like, just it's above the water table. It was alive. And it was used to help us drink. And it's it's also used as a kind of insulators to keep the heat. So it was muck so I went back again. Yeah. Oh my god. Do we have some swatches, and I went to this law kiln and you saw, I dig down this knife. And sure enough, it's not seated. Because it's a smaller canvas like blank. So that was absolutely amazing. And then let me go again, talk to the Seattle tile in Japan, and they assured us yes, they have sub floors. And it's part of drainage. And also part of the installation. Okay, moving right along, keep going there. There is no hurry. So here it is that you go to that one. Here's the sub floor, there's bikes. You can see them under the leaves. And then here's dirt that would have been covered. Next, next, and again, here's the entrance going on here is one of the Atlantic. The other bet. I'd like to wonder if we can go back. How are we doing? Today, okay, let's go back to one of the the poster of the fishing. From season. I'll get it that explains the chart. Okay, this is Mr. destaca. It's a Budo the soccer and his wife. You already you York. And this is them. When they went back to Japan. They moved to South Korea in 1905 and stayed until 1929. And then as a startup is growing, which is going to let you know, if it went from the dividend point that they leave every year. We don't know because you see imagines Well, the ones in Dalian sort of shut down because they discovered coal and other coal that Cumberland was used to be used instead of charcoal. Coal is not made of wood. So it shifted things in terms of the calories. They didn't need to buy people charcoal, they can just get cold, it was hotter, fewer. But and here are the rice acts. When I first started this project. It's so so honored to be here because when I stumbled into charcoal did angelito I didn't even know what it was. And then I had a friend who was in his 70s years me and my friend was a student near epi bakery in 1906. Right and there was this, a school, a boarding school. And he went to this boarding school and they weren't allowed to go near the charcoal kilns when they were burning. Because there's so much toxic smoke is produced from the paralytic acids. And so he told me, this is the job of it. I didn't know what it was. And that's when I started researching. And he said to me, Steve, oh, most people call me Steve owing SIBO. I was going to tell you the whole story, and the countless owner nameless to Sokka and that's how I started my journey coming here with my family do the campground Oh man. It was a campground looking for those stupid kills, finding them and finding out about two sockets. And then I found out that they would do two seconds left living is Uncle whose name was Ty and his dad and his name was Leslie. Yeah I think that Angela, her real name is muscle. And I called her and I went and because I was just so curious, really zone curiosity. It's like we came out of us. Were hearing. So I went and found these two people. I went to come out and interviewed checks. And he told me his job was watching the Calum for the three days and helped me to watch the watch. If you can't get too hot and smoke comes up to you that do the clay or through the sand. You had to put water on it and then put more sand. If you had to keep your kiln tight. We couldn't let it burn. And when I then went, and he told me all about going in the fishing boat with his dad to take the charcoal themselves to a factory a soap factory down. In Victoria right downtown with the Salvation Army store is in a rental there. There was a soap factory and also a Smitty because you need charcoal, you know the Smiths, middies and horses and horses and making metal and steel and everything. They need charcoal for that. The better your charcoal the better your archers are going to be on your horses. And all the iron. We need charcoal. You also need charcoal for making dynamite. Dynamite gunpowder just 15% charcoal. So the soap that is to be dyed like that reembolso Island, it blew up in 19. Okay. And then they moved it to Jim diamond over there. So also let's see. What else next? Okay, so the sacks MoMA Oh my. When I looked into the view, her job was to sow the ears of the sax and pitch the 200 sets of jumbo to be so happy. And I wouldn't be surprised if they sold some to that many desire. Because the smithy decided, Mr. McAfee. Who was a smithy? I don't miss McAfee was a man who lived near me bakery. And he thought where the charcoal kiln has now I believe that I'm not sure. He was listening. And he got he got some of the juggler to imagine a second. Yeah. Oh, yeah. All right. So that's how I started my journey. And it took me also a high we took me to the interior to the school can through the history of the Japanese people who have been determined and everything just kept going and stuff. I really feel I mean, I am a psychologist. I work most of my life with children in trauma and as a play therapist, and performer next I think we've done pretty well everything. Okay, you there's the ceramic top, write that down a bit right there. And you can see if you go to the jungle film, you'll see this this image of understanding yet, okay, okay. There is Andrew mystery, Andrew curry, who was our chief Mason and taught us how to rebuild it. And that is so exciting us it wasn't easy, man. And we got a banana job. When we your payments, people.

Speaker 1 44:11
Wow, he's a kid working. And then we are just working away next. Again, it's a fluid down that and this tells you about the charcoal making, how it's made, how the kilns worked that but this the color of the smoke that you watch as it goes. I mean you have wood stoves. Okay, so you know, if you set your wood stove what's coming out of the chimney is white smoke depending on where you're using this as washers. If you watch a smoke over and over, it's thinner, thinner, thinner, thinner, lighter blue, and then you know that when you only thin you got in your woodstove. This piece there's no smoking That's how they can tell when it's ready. All the moisture is going. Going I think we're pretty good that's a great picture and we need some floor and we go back to the beginning Keep going Keep going

Speaker 1 45:35
one more thing I did want to end this never seen my hands up here they might have those down get to class one time ready like a flock of birds okay, I when I use this is called the juggler pick, you know, when

Unknown Speaker 46:10
you go like this at the same time. Ready? Good. Yeah. Now, I don't want you to have to jump up in the air. This has got to sit down. charcoal gray. Are you ready?

Unknown Speaker 47:07
What's up

Unknown Speaker 47:10
questions. One question

Speaker 1 47:16
here and the bakery. You know exactly where it is. Rose it behind them every bakery, that whole area would have been all the way up to you know, that road

Speaker 2 47:36
plan. It's a bit of an historic site. The second question is the evolution of charcoal. Your early slides suggested it was going on in Europe, it's going on Japan.

Speaker 1 47:52
Also in South America. Okay, do we know where it actually originated and therefore, transcript moved around the earth. From that point. I was trying to understand that. It seemed just out of being the ball to go with somewhere else and where they took some skill with them. And it seemed like he was all over the world. If you look at the king case, and the Aztecs, they were making charcoal and smelting. So there that's again, also not 2000 3000 BCE. So people were moving around a lot and shifts everyone's gonna replace penicillin. What's interesting to me is like, I use this 15 years ago and now it's not that I'm reading this history. So history moves around everywhere slowly, there is no one time period, usually between six and

Speaker 1 49:00
China save if you look at Spanish skills, they look just like this one you gotta open

Unknown Speaker 49:11
first and the question

Unknown Speaker 49:17
mark made nowadays,

Speaker 1 49:21
will they have metal accounts? Okay, your big metal camp to pull away and it's all enclosed. In the United States of America, you'll see big metal boxes huge. So what they got in Japan, they still use the same method. And but all the Cambrian discovered are covered. Like the Japanese like these scales in your park would have had a roof to protect it because if it's burning, it's so hot that if it rained, it would explode. So yes, the one nails saw spring Yes, it is returning to water we didn't realize is gonna fill it with so much logic and we didn't know that they had. So they figured out thanks and today we're going to be set up a self cycling system until we the parks are ready to help us deal with it. I know again, we had I had that also involved with the galleon club where the student doesn't land at the park, and also our art museum society and Dalian. Now also with our project, so might be a good idea. Maybe you guys get together who decided, but a simple post been brewed with no routing, sloping shed booth would be great. And I don't think it would cost you that much. Boulders to form the wall. Yes. Just seven. We use the same lot. Today we're in isn't amazing, hard clay. It was like cement. Okay, but what were the other little catalyst? It's not as crazy. It's more Sandy. So I don't know the it's a different method. They didn't do the nine methods. It says we're just smoke from your part that they took the material that was near them to use it. Yes, ma'am. The top that you said was ceramic. Yes. That was from the clay right there.

Speaker 2 51:46
So that's taken a while to build that? No, I

Speaker 1 51:50
think what they just did is they put just took the clay that's there because it is an amazing play, cover the whole thing that you add? And then and now many of these would they make, they will only use the same. And then they would own when they open it up. They just feel it where they open. We will take that whole top off. That was my question.

Speaker 2 52:13
You mentioned that South America this gentleman here who gave a talk on Monday on plane tickets and so on, I'm not comparing the two methods for sure.

Speaker 3 52:36
Really fast, it's been used for 1000s of years in South America. The Mayans had it as Tex Toltecs Olmecs. All of those cultures would have used very similar methods. An issue with this method is the pollution. And modern methods in metal do harness a lot of that pollution and turn it into all sorts of products for what pitches and tars chirping times. All depending on the feedstock going in time will produce pine tar. turpentine.

Speaker 1 53:11
Yeah, other paralytics acid. Yeah, what are yours for paint industry and are like that? Yeah.

Speaker 3 53:18
That's for direct comparison in the method. It's nearly identical, except for the sub flooring, as far as I know, didn't exist in any way. And

Unknown Speaker 53:33
where you are with what part of South America you thought the other

Speaker 3 53:38
day I was in Colombia, but I don't think Colombia would have been one of the main charcoal regions, it was actually probably more the Brazilian regions of the Amazon. They're famous for their tariff write up for their charcoal rich soils that are known as the best soils on the planet now. Which is why biochar ties

Speaker 1 54:01
right. Yes, as well. Like I really covered we were talking to the head of the association. And if I went to Japan, they said they were going to take me to charcoal makers who use that charcoal for the sustainability of soil and the forests.

Speaker 3 54:20
Right, absolutely. One note there is that charcoal and biochar well looking very similar are different. One is much better for burning and one is better for your soil. And the difference there is just depending on the rate of heating, the maximum duration that that wood was heated up, or grass, any biological matter can be turned into it. That can change the way that charcoal forms and biochar is are better for your soil provides better habitat for microorganisms, whereas charcoals are better for burning

Speaker 2 54:59
these days I'm going to be here. I want to say one thing for us. February is Black History Month is somebody who they know and also back in many areas, centers, Americans. So, if you want to see some of their history, go to our website Saltspring And look up, the family names start with one of them. You'll see there and you get an idea of the history of those families on the island. We don't have a program every year in February. In the past, probably next year, we won't be doing a program on their history on Saltspring. So we have many diverse thoughts. On that note, I'll say thank you and we'll see you in another program.