|a presentation to the Historical Society, Central Hall
|March 8, 2017
Speaker 1 0:00
posited yet introduced this toolkit. It's, as you can see here, it's called the winds of Salt Spring Island. So this is the title of our talk. And it's going to be two parts. It's going to start and talk about the background of black settlers coming to Salt Spring. And then I'm going to talk about a particular incident. That happened in the early settler history of sorts, Mexico. 1881 is when I'm focusing on 1881. I wanted to say that this is recognizing we would postpone foot because of snow last month, recognizing Black History Month is what we're doing now. And also want to acknowledge today is International Women's Day. And I'm very pleased to see here some important women, and one of whom is a descendant of the women's. Thank you for coming. And yeah, so I will introduce with linkbuilding has been on the island and been a member of the Historical Society for many years since 1980. And prior to that, Australia, and China come up. A lot of people.
Speaker 2 1:13
Welcome everyone, to the postponed Black History Month. Today's weather's perfect. Yeah, I'm so glad to see so many of you. I just want to briefly explain how I got involved in this project. This just happened last year, I just had some time. Instead of walking to Apple photo by the fire station. I just decided to walk through the Centennial Park towards the monument. So I walk over there. And so ascribe on the monument, a lot of names. I just went through all the things there. And one name just caught my eye was the James Douglas wins. I just saw myself walking. Was he one of the boys I used to live on the whims road. I pass by Winslow, because I live in Newton. Every time I go to town, where I just wonder food boy was on the warm monument. So I asked my friend Julian Watson. She volunteers the archives for many years. And she told me she says he was working on presentation for Remembrance Day last year, November the 11th 2016. She was doing a presentation of the altar the young boys to volunteer for the First World War and went to Europe. Many of them lost their lives. And one of the boys was steamed spotless wins the small world, isn't it? So I thought in the winds family. That's how I got started. So before I begin talking about the introduction, Bulger periods, when did the first pioneers arrived on Saltspring Island, I take you all back in time, during that period, just before the period when the pioneers arrived on the island
Speaker 2 3:41
a table listed here I started with 26, the civil war in America
Speaker 2 3:56
didn't end till 1776 And they declared it very independent. On the fourth of July, some things from 818 49 Gold was going to rise a happening in California. So there was an influx of many immigrants actually gold diggers that arrived in in California
Speaker 2 4:38
so when, when the America deep here the independence was during the time of King George wizard of England. And that time, British Columbia was under the governor of the colony and Uh So
Speaker 2 5:09
So 1882 years after the independence America, the African Americans and the Hawaiians were allowed to preempt land in British Columbia, because they have so many gold diggers in California, they can't afford to keep them all. And also the goal. So there's too many refugees, more or less, the equivalent will present time is also, at that time, the gold rush to happen the Fraser River in British Columbia. So the governor of that time, Sir James Douglas, the governor of Vancouver Island, under the under the Hudson's Bay Company. So he invited some 100 Black families to come to Vancouver Island Supriya so I just tell you the length. So the price was set up, the people want to print the length, put a stake on the land, about five shillings per acre, which is equivalent to $1 per acre $1 per acre is very, very expensive. In those days, $1 is worth far more than $1. Today, you can buy chewing gum, the rule is, the single man can print 100 acres, and the married couple can create 200 acres at that price. But most of the people are very poor, they are gold diggers, some of them freed slaves from America, they have very little money, and some are single men, and some come with families. After the put the state of the land, usually in those days, we just find some broken pottery and bury in the ground. And there's no surveyor or anything, they just claim the land. Single men can claim one day because the married couple can claim 200 acres. After that they can they have to clear the land. Most of the people are very poor, they don't have horses or oxen, they everything's by hand, they have to cut down the trees, put the fence around the frame to the land, and also build a dwelling all the land they have to live in, they can sell the land until they become self sustained. blackballing crops sell raising chickens or something like that. And then they can buy the land. And then they have to apply for a certificate of improvement first, that's building the fence around it and building the dwelling that lives in on it. And then the surveyor will come and survey the land, when they can buy the land and registered register is. So before they buy the land, they can sell it. Or if they can't afford to buy the land, they can bend in it, a lot of the people like the person pay, they just sit there let do nothing. So use the pencil and somebody else can play preemptively and have the the you know app and that they can sell it after they can sell it after they pay for it. So the first lot of of the parameters that came on the island by the invitation all sorts of that was changed. And according to different sources, so this is the first lot where 19 of them, they were black American parameters. Most of them are free slaves. They bought their own freedom sort of thing. And some of them were illiterate, but it would be one exceptions. The first teacher on the island. His name was John Craven Jones. He was blood and he was a graduate from the A Australia now sale for America from Ohio. And he taught the children from six to 16 for free in the central schoolhouse for free. And he was black and he obviously was very well educated, but most of them will single and also we were poor. So, so the one of the family arrived was wins family was family with the father was called heroine wins. And he came with his wife, Lisbeth wins. But Jillian has been loved research and obviously, you know, we couldn't find out when this was was born. Also, he came with his supposed to come to the island with his wife and a one daughter to marry. And with two sons, one of the sons called Heron Clark winds. This the daughter Mary wins. As the other son, the younger son is William channeling with other birthday and also to death. So, some from one source. Elizabeth wins and the daughter Mary died in Saanich before they arrived on the island, so But according to Chilean she found other records. Elizabeth actually came with the Father and also lucid and she died late later. Up to now we don't know who we were anyway. While most of the names of the children were name of the forefathers, when the Heron clap wins, and William gentleman's got married and later on have children, they name all the children with their full father's name. So I felt very confused that later on, they have very large families in those days. Okay, so the next one presented. So the Williams with the Father with hiring wins, preempted 100 acres down here. The blue one, okay. The two sons claimed 50 Acres is a William William a witness. This one here was a one of the sun and the other son clock winds, yellow 50 acres. This one here. This one you can see probably decide how we're supposed to package your kids cell cells here for them
Speaker 2 13:17
now Harry Williams and his wife Elizabeth, and also a daughter Mary, they were free slaves from Missouri. They came overland from America to San Francisco with a two cents but as I mentioned before Elizabeth and Mary died in Saanich didn't arrive
Unknown Speaker 13:51
Speaker 2 13:59
the first bride ship arrived from England bring single women because the most of the brand is a single men. Also there were white people that arrived on the island too. So all the single women is supposed to help out with their single men here. So a few of the price arrived on the ship. The ship actually went to Victoria first but some of the ladies the price came to Ireland marry the islanders
Speaker 2 14:42
actually, the other slaves were not free up until 1863 87 years after their event independence was a long time was the ad is called the men's men's See patient felt asleep in 1867 that the act of British North American ads is established Dominion of Canada, which becomes a birthday Canada's birthday 1867 8090.
Unknown Speaker 15:30
Speaker 2 15:33
The Gold Rush happening yo calm all also around the Klamath River. That's make the Dawson City spring up with all the dancing girls all the beer parlors and prostitution houses and so on. But the on the island after the present prevention of the lamp by the wind family, most of the flats, because of Hiram winds arrived with two sons. And they ended up in North Beach Road, north and road, you know, near North Shore near the paxville, which is near from what area and at that time suffering. This is a picture of the oldest photograph we'll find in the archives about north part of Saltspring Island, can you see the land is a very heavily forested very, there's no roads, no nothing, just trees, also the Fernwood area, which is called the back backfill in those days, but of course, the daughter from Rudolph wasn't building. It was a no, all the pioneers, they arrived very poor, and very few of them bought horses or oxen to help them to clear the land. So it's very hard work. You know, all the pioneers have very large families. And there's all the babies given the double barrel names after the forefathers I got mixed up. Many, many times because I didn't know who's who tells them all mixed up. That's why I highlight domains, the you know, just clock wins. So we just forget about the hiring plus wins, or William Shannon wins services highlight the center wins. So you can do differentiate, differentiate one from the other. So the families depend depend on each other, for the support and also for services. And also, like, during that time, there's no transportation, and also no electricity. Because that didn't have telephone or internet or any of that stuff. The VR boys usually go to work in family with somebody else at the age of 10. And all the girls got married very early off, you know, so you know, so the families only have so many mouths to feed, you see. So actually, they live in pocket of each other all the time, apart from for their support and services that we each other. So it's pretty hard time in those days. So I noticed that all the details how they live close to each other. So I just go to the next part here. So in 1967, we're celebrating 100th birthday. And our Centennial Park was opened on the eighth of July. So so this year we're celebrating 150th year, right, so when the new park was officially opened, they planted trees in honor of all the black, not only black pioneers on Saltspring Island, the two trees were planted for Hiram wimps and also William wimps. I think properties William channel wins as pioneers in the Centennial Park. But we I read in the driftwood they're sort of doing the renovations while Centennial Park. They're moving some of the trees while they don't know where the Pioneer trees were, because we couldn't find a map for the trees were planted. So by 1998 by this time of the telephone book, there are only descendants of the whims and the stock of soft families on the island. Right now there's only the star families that have some descendants on the also one of the winds family. I think one of the daughters married Into the Woods family. I think one of the ladies is here in the audience.
Speaker 1 20:37
Tallinn and I think we probably have other descendants of some Yeah.
Speaker 2 20:44
So I'll hand over to Delia. Now she will give you a very interesting story in the 70s. Listen.
Speaker 1 21:03
Well, thank you for introducing the context in which black settlers came to Salt Spring. wanted to start by mentioning a couple of people here. One was, she suggested this idea, I just done the presentation. Remembrance Day. And the women's brothers who went to the youngest women's brothers, who went to First World War was one of the focuses. And so she suggested we do this, and it sent me an incredible Paper Chase. To find out about the winds. I want to acknowledge them for suggesting this to I want to say Frank price has helped me with all the presentations that I've done. I've done a few. And he always provides the images did for this and the technological know how everything I know about Photoshop. And he has actually 15 points plus this off, but he has a deep knowledge of Saltspring history. So thank you. And I want to acknowledge that a lot of the material that I'm talking about, was stimulated by Ruth fanvil. She's a historian who did her thesis on patterns of reaction. And she says she's written a book called contesting rules, and a bit academic. But if you look between the lines, it's incredibly interesting. She talks about the relationships between people and how this is reflected in the patterns of preemption. And it was the comments, boxes and the little notes that sent me on this. Quest. So I'm, what I'm going to talk about is events that occurred in 1881. So this is this is 21 years, or 20 years after the settlers came to Salt Springs. After hiring WIMS and his two sons, we've seen cater sorts to me. Now, one of the things I want you to realize is that when high winds arrived, his wife was has died on the journey. Perhaps his daughter died shortly after they arrived here. Truck whims, was 12 years old when they came when when I was seven years old, and they got to Salt Spring and the reason I think that the daughter died on Saltspring is because Ebenezer Robson, in his diary mentions coming to central the central settlement. We am sure you all know that we're surrounded by where the black community was right here. And he came to central settlement he talked to Mr. Anderson he talked to Mr. Wynn's Mrs. Anderson has had a baby, Mr. Wynn's had just lost his oldest daughter and 1861 So his two young boys and a father and they just lost lost the female part of their family. So I think it was must have been a very difficult thing for them at that time. So I'm going to talk about these events is kind of shocking I think in any time. They see a lot of Clark WIMS with and Maria Sampson talking about I'm gonna go back a little bit before I did that, but I wanted to say one thing here about I used to be a social psychologist and somebody you know, that
Unknown Speaker 24:28
came to Salt Spring I've heard a few people say to me old was no purchases.
Speaker 1 24:38
As a social psychologist, such a psychologist interested in prejudice intergroup relations. I didn't quite believe that. Okay, I never thought this was true. And I think that they're convinced that I'm going to talk about was called Social friction caused stress for the poor family, cause friction in the community. And I think it's those kinds of things. to bring out the existence of prejudice, if it is there, and indeed this one. But let me go back to the people who said that there's no prejudice on any sorts. What I do think is the early Saltspring, US had the opportunity to take advantage of what's called the contact hypothesis in the social psych literature, Gordon Allport. He says that if people can interact with people from previously antagonistic groups can interact under conditions of equality, if they have shared goals, and they work cooperatively, that can help them to reduce prejudice. And I think those conditions were people were equal in status they had. They were farmers, they had shared goals, they wanted schools, for example, wanted churches, they could not do this alone. They've had to rely on the neighbors. And so I do think we're actually some conditions for reducing existing prejudices. But those settlers brought with them the prejudices of the cultures. I'm from England, you know, I know something about the prejudices that the English would have brought with them. For example, the English at that time had very much an attitude that they were doing the world a favor, by the sun, never setting on the British Empire by my view is going and using the resources of the world. But what the favorite they thought that they were doing, was to bring British culture. So prejudice didn't exist. In that early settler culture. I had a chance between neighbors to be minimized. And I think it was, and what we're going to see is how the family and the community. So now let me get home. So I'm going to talk about the next generation of the winds. Here's William Shannon winds, the one who I said was a seven year old boy when his father came to Salt Springs. He married and this are the events I'm going to talk about the elopement happened in 1881. What happened earlier in that year is that the sister of the girl who went on the allotment, and the brother of the man got married, that's a social context. What do you want and Emily Ellen Sampson. This is a marriage certificate. And it serves to illustrate something I found in Colorado research, which was a fluidity and ages, ages tended to go up and down. And Spence went up and down. So here we have William wills, as 27 years old, and 81, actually is 29. We have Emma Thompson without the P and her name's Emily, anyway. And she's 18 No, she wasn't she was 16. So you can see and that's just the beginning of the of the variations in names and ages. So this is their family. I've given you the birth and death dates. For the people. I'm talking about the men, although, in this case, 13 years older than though the wife outlives her. And that's true in the sense of family. I'm going to talk about that. They had 10 Children 16 years of childbirth for Emily Ellen Sampson. You can see the last two here are James Douglas and Robert Clark Winslow both went to the First World War. James Douglas winning the 16 year old claiming to be older Of course, and never came back. He died before use it. So those are the youngest children. You are some people might recognize Jane wins here, emily jane she married the bobby would have her day. And John wins is also well known in photographs. By getting married, they were joining the Samsung and the windows family and here is the father and mother in law. Heavy Samsung was is well known as the first customer on the island. Now in a child's com book it says he became the customer in 1872. You had a few Special Constable assignments before that. Well, if he did, he was sacked in the same year. There is a letter from John boost to the to the provincial powers saying they had actually asked you to not ask him told him that he had to sit down because he wasn't this is a new word for me living in concubinage. I had to look it up on the internet, we had to pronounce that. He was living without marriage with Lucy pizza here. And John was just saying, look, he was previously married. And there's no divorce court in post colonial British Columbia. He can't get divorced. He dearly wants to what he actually says Is he really wants to marry His the woman he's living with, and that woman was Lucy pizza. She was Aboriginals came from Connecticut called Cooper Island at that time her father pizza does not really hurt the Aboriginal name. Her father was appalled Captain pizza and he and his brother, various people between the islands it was quite well known. It's been suggested that that's how Henry Henry by the way was left by his wife and that's a whole nother story. I will not go into that so it she had gone away and he could not divorce. So Henry Sampson, Lucy peeps who were living together 16 years between them. And but notice that she outlived her by quite some years, 12 years. They see when they actually did get married, but you can see when it was and we'll get into that. 14 children. Lucy pizzas had 27 years of childbirth. I said no wonder if you're younger than their husbands. It's very depleting having children. Now, I just want to highlight a couple of these children. The two that we're going to focus on are Emily. Ellen Samson. We've already seen her she married William Shannon, and her sister. Now, again, setting the context for the dramatic events that occurred in the census at the beginning of 1881. All of these people are listed, not the not the top one. List us living at home by the end of that year when our event takes place or elopement. Emily Ellen was now living in Florida with her husband. And Maria was no longer in her house she had now as a 13 year old being made a made in Escalon Becker courthouse in Vesuvius that epsilon Betancourt was the storekeeper at the landing at Perseus and she was a servant in that house. So now she's she's within the heart of her family with her closest sister, and all of a sudden, 13 years old. She's living in Vesuvius, her father's living up at Fernwood in the back settlement, and her family is up there. She's on her own. And I think that that social context may well explain that and all sorts of other things, why she decided to do what she did. I've also highlighted a little make Frederica here, she was the youngest daughter of the Samsung. And she comes in incidentally, but the two major people from that we're going to talk about what I've introduced you to so far, we don't have any photos at this point of art, we've only got one set of photos around Maria. Now, so in a small comment box in a database, it's a computer database of Roussanne. Well, I discover a apparent trial. I click on it, copy it into Word. And it's four pages of a transcript of what seems to be a trial. And this is what sent me often, I sent her clues to some of the correspondence. So I went into BCR parser with three times four times. And I they actually allow you these days to photograph the original documents, which I did, and this is the original document. It says Clark winds and William Daniel Wim, sorry, Anderson indictment, abduction, and it lists the witnesses. I'm going to do that for you. Here's the again the original manuscript, what it says at the top. This is the beginning of it when you open it up at a court Holden at the schoolhouse central settlement, Salt Spring Island on the 21st day of December 18 At one before thread for JP and JP booth JP to GPS. And where was the schoolhouse? That 50 100 yards would you say at that direction. This is what it looked like. I'm assuming this is the set it was this is the central schoolhouse. 13 years later, I said that you'll be looks 13 years old. So I think this is where the court was held. These were the people at the hearing. Fred Ford and John Booth. They was JPS. So they were making the decision about the indictment.
Speaker 1 34:29
Just to introduce them they were both at this point counselors of the valley recently incorporated township of Salt Spring Island. It was very shortly to be this incorporated as that's a word because they were accused of abusing their powers is not corruption Exactly. But just making decisions without consulting anybody that John Booth was was already a representative to the Provincial Parliament and continue to be so and both of them were JP They were instrumental in politics on Saltspring. John Booth was also a trustee at the schoolhouse. So constable Henry Rogers was the constable who was involved and gave evidence here. The prisoners so called here were Clark winds 34 and William Daniel Anderson, the the whims is there. The plot that Hiram had to the north of that just to the north and Hiram would have been somewhere up here, perhaps them in in the Stephens Cunningham area, which would be his preemption, just about them with the Andersons and they were obviously good friends we understand the winds. This is Clark winds. Maybe a little older than the age. He was in 81. I'll show you that have a classic photo this one is fine, strapping man. The witnesses were Annemarie, Samsung. She's been called Samsung here. 13 years old. She eloped. Emily Emily Ellen has sister 16 years old. Hiram wins 75. Now, Henry Samsung 51. And epsilon has the victim caught the employer of Maria. And what I'm gonna do is use various words to describe the actual elopement for you. So this is the evidence she gave after trying theory was very simple, and it gives us exactly what happened. She says Andrea starts with being duly duly sworn, deposed and say it. Emily Anderson, and that's William Daniel Anderson. The friend's wife told me Clark winds was coming for me on Wednesday evening. Now when is this? It says above this thing. This is the dark and stormy night of November the 13th. It wasn't stormy. At least I don't think it was stormy. But it's certainly dark and it was cold. He came to me on the Wednesday evening. And I went with him. We went to Burgoyne to my sister's. Okay, so let's have a look where they went. We know from the evidence of Escalon house in Brooklyn court that he tracked the next morning he discovered and Maria's gone. He tracks the footsteps to the road. He discovers horse and male footprints tracks those all the way to Mr. Stackhouse. Whereas with the statues in central settlements, somebody and he tracks them at that point, he realizes she's gone. And he goes to tell him about it. So we know at least they went to Central settlement make sense? Then we know they went to for going now I've done a crow flight here. Of course, they didn't go straight, they went to a no roads. They went through forest trails if they kept going by horse. But I realized the other day that they very possibly didn't. Very possibly they went by Ken. Why? Because I think the reason William Daniel Anderson was there was because he was the man with the canoe, much to be desired in this plot that and they seem to have planned it very well. And so I think possibly, they actually, you will know better than I, if you had to go through forest trails to strike even with the horse and the horse. The reason hybrid winds were these were his, they were borrowed without asking him and returned with that. They actually we'll return to source. And that's what that is evidence. And so they went they went, they left in the evening. They got there about three o'clock in the morning. So I say you will know better than I which would be the best way to go in the middle of the night in November. I don't know. I'm assuming they went blank but it could have been either. She said we stopped there until about six o'clock on Thursday morning. We then went to Spanish and they went into the keynote and Daniel Anderson went with them. So I've gotten down to swap space. She doesn't say that she says Spanish this is your Spanish. You'll see why I'm getting that. That would be a landing there then but obviously not the ferry. Notice they stopped out in the dark. It's six o'clock on December the first now is dark, canoeing a way to manage. She says Ben says we went to Saanich and wrote to Victoria in a buggy post canoe and they went to Victoria. We went to Mr. Pollard in Victorian we got married. We left Victoria and they did get my ignatia diction. This is I found it difficult to find this why? Clark winds is spelt wrong When it says he personally sensitives that he could read but not write. And it seems to me that people who have worked, couldn't read or write tended to have their name misspelled more often. If he says he's 30 he's probably 34. And very sad. SubSys crappy this time. She says she's 18. We know she's 13. Now, I should tell you something, this hearing that I'm reading from, it was the day before her 14th birthday, her birthday was on the 22nd of December. It's the 21st that she's giving this evidence on reading. We went, we left Victoria, and we went to Cole Island and was there when the constable came. So they went to call on and that's called Island. And so that's why I think they came there. I think they came to somewhere in sports, they left the club, rented the buggy, went down to Victoria got married, we've got this certificate was back up, and we're in cola and they were staying with a connected family on cold Island. That's the evidence of Rogers key and Henry Sampson went and when they discovered where they were, I think it took us a while a few days at least. They went in to close we know that to close rented from Charlie horrorland. William that's bad. This is because the accounts papers tell us this. I think it was $2 a day or something for these to close. And the constable arrested Clark winds and William Daniel Anderson and and Maria was put into the charge of her father. So at the end of this hearing, this is the charge that was written for the two prisoners. Clark wins and William W. Anderson did unlawfully take one and Maria Sampson after the possession and against the will of Henry Sampson her father. And after the possession of Escalon Betancourt misspelt, they're a person having the lawful care and charge of her she being an unmarried girl under the age of 16. So I'm assuming things were different if you were 16, perhaps I don't know the law at that time. But that's what that's the impression I get. bail was set to appear at the Victoria assizes for $600. An amazing amount for each prisoner. And the way the record recovered, was that there was $200 for the prisoner and two other people and in Clark woman's case, this was hiring when he would so that would be responsible to $200 higher and responsible for $200. And John Sparrow, which is on the paper is responsible for $200 that's sort of interesting. John Sparrow was a neighbor of William wombs who was living in fourth with his wife, that's when Kira I am, I've got the what's happened, of course, I know there's going to be a trial, a real trial. They've been indicted, this is a serious charge. Can I find it? No. I have a friend who has done 30 years of research and Aboriginal law. And she looked in the legal databases for me identified. So I said to her, and I looked at, I looked on judges bench books, and you'll see the results of that. I looked in causebox and plink books, I discovered what those are. I couldn't go enough times to the BC archives to be completely comprehensive. And I said to her, Can we assume that wasn't a trial? She said, No, you can't assume that. Because the records were were pretty bad. So there could have been a trial. However, my you know, I'm talking here, uncertainty. But I really firmly believe that there wasn't a trial. That that it it's pretty obvious from that. Let me just read a little bit more evidence. This is an Maria again. She's got it. She's told her what happened where she went. She's cross examined. And this is a cross examination question from the prisoners. They allow the prisoners Did you on the night Mr. Willis came for you go with him of your own free will? Yes, I did. I was already prepared knowing he would come that evening. I meet him not far from the house up by the barn. I had arranged for him to come to me. I went off my
Speaker 1 44:29
pretty obvious that she did and subsequent events make it obvious that she went with her own free Well, this wasn't abduction in the classical meaning of that. It might be considered so because she was under age. So I was interested in what was the long term outcome for the community for the family for Anne Marie and what happened with her. And of course, the Samsung family then nearly joined in June, June, July wherever it whenever it was, and all of a sudden this happens and Annie Sansone was probably up. And so what I did find looking through judges bench books was wasn't hearing notice these are short term consequences. January the 12th. So three weeks after that initial hearing in Victoria, Judge gray here, a writ of habeas corpus against Henry stance and by Clark wills what I got what and what I say that I got what I couldn't even read it. First of all, I recognize the name winds, although it was written so badly. I'll show you in a second. The the cavers corpus is it means having the body it's a it's a I'm not using the right legal term. Here. It is a legal is to safeguard people from illegal imprisonment or being detained illegally by illegally imprisoned somebody through our our legal system, or individuals detaining each other. So what Clark winds is saying is that me and three other sites you Donna and Roberta had to translate this. So this is about this size, again, photographic. It's the notes that the judge wrote for himself. And this is what we'd have to determine what it actually did that. But what Scott was saying in that first paragraph is he's saying that heaviness that some force has forcible possession of my wife, taken by said Henry Spencer. So that's what he's saying, that's possible possession of my wife. And the judge is hearing this now. As you can see if you can read some of this, what this says is detained, detained against her will, now against as a sort of shorthand there, but that's actually detained against my wife. The adult life of Hiram wins was home club wins. Yeah, so that's writing and some of it's not even as easy as that, as that to understand. appeared at this hearing on January the 12th. And what did he say? He said that his daughter was not with him, or under his control, but perfectly free to do as she pleases. With the judge, as always, in the 60s, the judge sensibly set for an Maria over from Salt Springs, she comes four days later gives her evidence, she backs the fogger up, she says that she is not under his control. She is staying with Mr. Betancourt again. She's a servant. Again, and she's not under his control. However, so this is short term, what happened within the next couple of months. The couple ran away. She left she took her father's word that she was ready to do. Nonetheless, heavy sacks and got a few neighbors together and they went after the fugitives. Now this is where I'm what I'm going to tell you is very frustrating because information but quite a lot of this, but I'll tell you what I did. I've only tried but it will probably take me way too long. So I don't know. Find the couple did they bring it back again? I angry I don't know. We've got some, some some indications. I say he didn't really mean she was thrilled to do it. She played this is this is why we know that this incident affected the community as a whole. Now funeral in the community comes from Ruth sandbars book. She says there was fewer in the community about this. She's She's wonderful in terms of getting records she sent me to the incoming mail of the Superintendent of Education. And that's where I discovered what happened. The Superintendent of Education because Mr. San Luis was a school teacher and there was a a meeting held at the schoolhouse just up here in which the community, the black community and they were most the parents there were were most of his pupils came from those families. They were calling this meeting and actually it was John John Booth was a trustee. He'd called the meeting because there was so much dissatisfaction with Mr. Lewis But they weren't attending now, what's this got to do with our case? Well, it turns out and we have very detailed like the, like the court had like the court hearing a transcript of what people said, at this hearing. And the major beef. Yes. They said he didn't keep order and my child came home with a with a bump on his head. And he didn't give my child homework and my child stayed in the first reading. So they weren't complaining about him as a teacher, but the point at which and by what way, we have John boosts account, we have the teacher himself, Mr. Lewis's impassioned, 10 page letter to the Superintendent of Education. So we've got his words, which are so different from from John Doe. And what they are actually saying is, this is Mrs. Anderson. Mr. Sampson we've come across before William Daniels who wife This is Mr. Gwen. Mr. Quinn. Miss Mr. Grinstead? I think that Mr. Lewis went with Mr. Sampson to catch up with Ben he is prejudiced to color. And I think he is I do not think he is fit to teach my children. This is when Mrs. Anderson says Mr. Lewis has been trying to keep Mrs. whims on her husband, any teacher that would do such an action, I will not let him teach my children. And, and Mr. Lewis's impassioned. 10 page letter says, very modestly, hot words were exchanged. himself by the way, he said, I didn't go with that. But they did believe that. But anyway, that was what the issue was, Mr. Mr. Lewis has that was where the hot words were exchanged over whether Mr. Lewis went with Mr. Sampson to get Clark Winston. And Maria. And they were obviously the the blacks are looking into obviously saying this is an issue of color. An issue of race relations, they were accusing. Mr. Lewis was white, of being prejudiced to color, prejudice against color people. So this was a real issue.
Speaker 1 52:33
And you can sort of see it in the in the air here. Now what they did, because the community on central were actually keeping the children away from the school, they close the school down for a period. Mr. Lewis, despite protesting with this wasn't true. And he was a good teacher. He was asked to leave, and I think believe he did.
Speaker 1 52:59
We have a letter from a school inspector now upon this. As an academic, concise, we're interested in this, one of the things that serious prejudice and reduction of prejudice say, you can reduce prejudice, under conditions of equal contact and so on. However, one of the factors that that determines whether it really last or not, is the PAP figures of authority, what they signal. And so if the six figures of authority, we have a lovely example in our societies in North America at the moment is the biggest thority signaled approval of prejudice, it tends to be expressible. If they show disapproval, it tends to be repressed. It doesn't mean it goes away. What do we have, we have a figure of authority who is a school inspector who was on the island at this time, he writes to the Superintendent of Education in Victoria and he describes this meeting he says, he says Mr. Lewis was roundly criticized for interfering in family affairs. And this was the lovely thing that I liked. I liked I found very interesting, the second daughter of Samsung, this is the second daughter of Samsung, this has been carried away. It is quite a rape of the sidelines. On a small scale, I think I should put it up. I'm sure this guy. The colored folks in the last settlement showing us laudable desire to improve the breed by fair complexion women. This is not to be enjoyed that Lewis should attempt to.
Speaker 1 54:41
demonstrate his notice he's writing to his boss, writing from Saltspring is writing to his boss. This is a funny joke about those colored folks very patronizing. And as I say, obviously, this would be received perfectly well it tells you that racial prejudices exist in this society quite rapidly. Now, what's interesting is the signature has been cut out. I show you this is from the microfilm. What that says is yours truly. And underneath, it's who he was addressing it to, which is Mr. McKenzie, the Superintendent of Education. So I tried to check whose writing this was, I couldn't find it, but I don't have all the time in the world. But to me, that indicates that there was indeed prejudice in probably largely British influenced, I'm English. So I can say such things. The British influence colonial powers, ex colonial, by the way, 1871 was when BC joined Confederation. So I'm going to talk about don't have too much power to have any time at all. I wanted to talk about the long term outcomes. So I'm going to whip through this. This is this is what's happened. We've seen here or in the community, we've seen, the couple have been broken up second time. I don't know if they were broken up again. What do we know happened? This is little bits and pieces. Clark winds is listed as a farmer in the Burgoyne Valley in 1884, and in 1885, UPN slander. Now, I don't have any evidence to this, but I thought maybe he's trying to work his brother Williams there, his younger brother, William has settled down with his wife's sister. And maybe he's trying to do this. He, by the way, abandoned that two years later, William Daniel Anderson is appointed now William Daniel Anderson was the fellow prisoner he was appointed constable on Saltspring. Now, this wouldn't have happened if there'd been a trial, nobody would have been way off the water objects. And I'll tell you what I've said about this.
Speaker 1 56:58
Personally, I'm by no means prejudice with regard to color. Now, the very fact that these passes so this means he was aware that this was a sensitive issue, cutting out the the signature tells us everybody was awareness was a sensitive issue. I'd be by no means prejudice with regard to color. But I do not think that two separate colored man to preserve order and make arrests among a large number of whites is very I do think that to set a colored man to preserve order among a large number of whites is very risky, and likely to lead to serious results. So he's saying, it's nothing to do with comes first I'm concerned it's just you won't be effective. I'm not sure for how long Daniel is our first black constable on Saltspring. Then we get evidence from the census. 10 years later, the marriage between clock winds, even if it ever got off the ground, and I don't know that it did not last 10 years later, clock winds is living on Saltspring with a six year old boy called William and Maria. Samson, as she's she's putting us up Amory Lundy, actually at this point, is living with Ben Lundy. staved off in Victoria. They have two children William H sets and a one month old girl people have speculated to me sandal did whether this William was the same William was the product of that marriage I have from the family but it wasn't okay that these were two different Williams they there was a nephew called William Clark was put in living with his nephew but the nephew was born in 1990 was called William so I don't think it can be 1891 We have evidence the marriage didn't work work areas and some found someone else not show you the the key potential farmer on Satsang so she moved back. I wonder if they were living in Victoria to get away from the scandal at that time, and at 91 William WIMS and Henry Sampson preempt neighboring locks on bank settlement and I'm going to show you this in a minute. Now why I've put this here is William was living in Fulford Henry up in Fernwood bank settlement, and they deliberately bought land preempted and bought land as neighbors making sure they were next door to each other to me this is a sign that the family had healed whatever rifts there were, there must have been tension. His brother went off with his father in law's other daughter, and you know, there must have been problems at that time. However, this is a sign that 10 years later they feel the risk, if not before that, William preempted land up in 1885 Actually Clark winds died in Victoria in the world Jubilee Hospital in its time, and recessed men went on to marry the man that she'd been living with. And Henry Sampson eventually married. So I'll just show you where they were living here that I was put by. I was going to enter, intersects that previous slide with these things, but I realized I haven't got much time. So Henry Sampson, this is where he lived, when he was presented lot 22 which was just south east of hedgerow road. He abandoned it and bought the one next to it. And this is what we think of as the winds land, head to road. Matthew winds run to the bottom. And he stops, immediately picked up lock 22. And he then actually purchased it. So they are deliberately cooperatively I think, buying land next to each other. They also the uncles that his children have overlapped in age with the women's children. His children and Ellen and William's children went to school together. And here they are, at 96, not for Serbia school. Take the message to the teacher. And here they all are dressed up in their Sunday best for the school photo. And I put start here, the green stars are the substance and the red stars are the wind. And so let me just tell you through a couple of things that John winds called Jacqueline's actually in the labeling here, this is just a sensor. That's that is made for a drinker Sampson, she's about 12. He's, I think about 10. This by the way, he shouldn't be there really. He's three years old. This is George winds who later was a farmer in Salt Springs. And he's you can see he probably insisted on getting dressed up like his brothers and sisters and being in the photos. But I don't think he was actually going to the school. We've got in the middle here. We've got Martha and Jane. I can't remember which is which now, they are going to school something awesome uncle's assassins are going to school with the nieces and nephews. Again, showing some kind of interdependence and support. Here's Clark was he died 1901. As I say GLP paralysis. looked it up doesn't what it is. Here is the marriage of Maria Sampson and Ben Lundy. She was 3420 years after the allotment. They have three children at this point, William 16. And there's 11 and seven, and then one divis 41 And we've got a series of these focus how volatile This is our last photo of Lucy picked out a good one. And have you sat next to her. This is 1904 at the marriage of Les Frederick as a youngest daughter on Connecticut. And she was marrying Edward Ross died in 1907. This is the marriage certificates of the next year 1905 and 10. We finally get married. Now I'm speculating here entirely. Perhaps he had heard that his first wife died, couldn't get the divorce. But they eventually got married and who is that witness of again, this indicates that witnesses Annie Lundy, and this is unreal. It indicates that the family was a family again in any antagonists was at least minimize his Henry in his old age. He outlived his wife by 12 years. And this is a photo that we just recently got identified by cousin of Sylvia. Nadine since he wrote to us and told us who this is. And this is Emily Allen wins in the last year of her life. This is her daughter Jane who is actually a teenager doesn't look at their and this is her daughter Martha and her grandson or granddaughter Harris. The other side essays but related to the stock. Now I just wanted to show you how it was with Emily. She was 47 years old. Now, it was obviously hard last The other thing to know here is she died of TB is this this was dated as 1912 And that's the issue died. She died have TB and it had by that time invaded all her organs. It's something like millet militating TB it's called I did look it up at the time but can't remember the term. Especially it's probably ordeal. But she looks to me 20 years older than 47 I think it speaks to a hard life.
Unknown Speaker 1:05:20
Speaker 1 1:05:21
She did she had she had appendicitis and then she had tubercular peritonitis. Yeah. So it was obviously in the family. Yeah. Yes. And I think it was on Saltspring generally. So last thing I want to mention here is I haven't got a photo at all humans old ages. William Shannon whims. He imagined that his wife died in 2012. He in the voters list of 1916 He has three sons, George and George we just saw with one of them. John and David William, William David at three sons who are farmers and he is a farmer still by 1921 He is a retired farmer. This is the census and he is living in North Salt Spring and he is a lodger with me Frederica once again speaking to the unity family that's everything I have
Unknown Speaker 1:06:31
sorry Okay, questions anybody got any questions? Can I fill in gaps? Some of the families I ended up we've talked about EMA.
Unknown Speaker 1:06:58
So you'll find some light
Unknown Speaker 1:07:07
Speaker 3 1:07:14
So you found that center of the black community? Victoria 1900s to Vancouver. So you found there were more more increasingly people of color living in Vancouver. So some of the people from salt spray ended up moving there.
Speaker 1 1:07:37
Some of them went back to them to America as well. One place? Yes, thank you, Sheriff Edmund flex, and she's a PhD on women of black women. It
Speaker 3 1:07:51
has been 25 years and I'm defending in September. Welcome to history of African Canadian women, British Columbia.
Unknown Speaker 1:08:11
I came over it because I wanted to do this for securitized
Speaker 1 1:08:19
and you can tell me where I make mistakes. I'm a total amateur here. I'm not a historian. So any other questions? Anybody. Wait very much for the excellent presentation. We appreciate it very much.