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Salt Spring Weather

Robert Aston

Robert Aston’s address to the Historical Society on local weather records kept by himself on Salt Spring Weather.

Accession Number Interviewer Address to the Historical Society
Date February 11, 1997 Location
Media cassette tape Audio CD mp3 √
ID 131 Duration




Unknown Speaker 0:02
I'm glad someone felt like me needed to shuffle a bit

Unknown Speaker 0:22
good afternoon everyone. I see friends I should people I don't know, to make some new friends. It was kind of perhaps flattering. But, Ken, if you'd asked me here today to address you on the general topic of pavement weather, but knowing your state's aim of your society, I confess that I find it a bit puzzling that the weather my hobby, should as a subject be considered a suitable topic presentation to your historical society, however, can be very persuasive. I wouldn't take no for an answer. And when you couple that to the douche simple facts, that I am always willing to talk about whether under the undoubted dearth of more suitable speakers on any given Tuesday afternoon and perhaps what is clear

Unknown Speaker 1:16
my only genuine though tenuous connection to things historical is that my wife and I live on the site, but what I was given to understand what once the bitten mentioned some of you may remember

Unknown Speaker 1:41
up front here

Unknown Speaker 1:47
or you know, the sound of my voice anyway. Okay. As some of you may remember, this final home, built for Captain and Mrs. Britain fought by their sons and son in law to be was destroyed by a fire in November 1969. In 1987, or there abouts. Whilst demolishing an old boathouse built just about the beach, but that had been vandalized. I uncovered a two by 10 plank that for still surprisingly clearly, the name of Captain Britain bought a dress shopping Island and dated August 1914. If I could digress just for a moment, those were the actual dimensions. Whereas our present day dimensions have been reduced and weakened in the name of economies spelled profit to a mere one and a half by nine and a half. I kept this relic for several years, but appears didn't to have you at all burned it? Does that have any interest to any of you? Another historical aside was that in 1977, a car came to our home driven by a Japanese man whose name is long forgotten, who asked if he could look around, explaining that he and his parents lived over there. pointing in the general direction of Lionel Coltart shown. They were market gardeners and he personally delivered produce to the beginning. In the car, along with no less than five other adults was his sister, whom he explained was either the first or almost the first baby to be born in the original lady mental hospital. Over in term during the Second World War and polish, chose to go to the Toronto area

Unknown Speaker 3:49
still scrambling for the historical connection. I wonder if any of you were members of the BC Historical Society in 1967?

Unknown Speaker 4:00
No one BC historical BC know why thought some of you will be around in other days.

Unknown Speaker 4:15
Donald knew of Galliano was then President as he was for many years actually. And presumably at his urging, provincial Zoom meeting was held at Kellyanne Hall. There were some 240 members transported on five large buses plus a few cars. And after the meeting, they all came up to our golf club for lunch. That for us was an event to be remembered. I kind of hoped for somebody who would have been in that group. Nobody knew either.

Unknown Speaker 4:45
No one old enough for that. Really.

Unknown Speaker 4:55
You died over here. For your general information, I have been keeping precipitation records in the Gulf Islands for some 32 years. First on Galliano, and now here, actually, it's about 20 years since I first provided for the driftwood, which damaged my record keeping. As the years went by, I first compiled tenure data and averages. And now at the end of 1996, I have compiled new 20, year averages, etc. With that number of years involved, perhaps it could be said that I'm getting a bit nearer to the historical thing. You see, I'm still trying to understand and justify my reputation here today. Okay, then, looking at the compilation of to force gaps, say sheets of tabulated figures, this sort of thing. You don't get much from it. I realized that unless I was searching for some specific event, these lengthy tabulations were anything but revealing. So I decided to compile graphs. And to my pleasurable astonishment, I found then that the picture became indeed graphic. This is, perhaps of interest. This is what 10 referred to it being the offshoot of that remark in the paper, I'll pass it round if you'd like me to pass it around. But in the ashes, this black pencil mark is precipitation. I'll explain precipitation later. Here in blue, is snowfall. years along the bottom, every two squares half an inch in one year. Up here is inches. The people get to shoot by Iraqi go shoot, what at the moment. But the significant factor here is that just as Ken indicated, having read it in local newspaper, both in precipitation in general, and snow in particular, after every bad year, we went right down the next year, sometime for a couple of years. The blue line is particularly significant for the current year, at least the year that we just experienced. So there's every hope that if a rocket down in the same manner, we can make it faster.

Unknown Speaker 7:48
This age, my own records, I have a couple of government issue, climate or BSD record books covering period from 1941 to 1970. Destroy the thing. What I see in these books, shows me a picture not at all dissimilar to that from my own records, though perhaps with one possible exception. Unless I have read the table incorrectly. In July 1959 We'd recorded for the Ganges area a high temperature of 101 degrees Fahrenheit or 38.33 degrees centigrade. And on the same date, a maximum temperature of only 93 degrees in for all the sugars that Ganges temperature is appreciably higher than anything I have recorded, though there are a minimum temperature of five degrees Fahrenheit, which is minus 15 degrees centigrade is compatible. Anyone have any comments on that? Relative now to that extreme low temperature, I use the word extreme loosely. I wonder if any of you happen to know Chuck Haller. Now I got to have a positive position. Some 15 or so years back. Chuck told me that there were years when he was a youth, the St. Mary lake was regularly frozen over so solidly that lovers using horsedrawn skaters rock their logs on the west side of the lake to the road on the east side of the lake by crossing on the ice. I have to confess that stretch my fidelity more than just a little though no more so than a story. My own father told me when I was young, of an ox roast on the frozen river seventh in England. My commendation draft it was colder in the olden days. I think it's time now to come to some actual facts and figures relating to our climate, with particular at addition to 1996 the urge attended and to the reference to 20 year period in general. But before I do so, I should mention that this part of my talk is actually the Detailed Summary compiled from my own records, though coupled with a few items of interest requested by driftwood reporter Valerie Lennox, for inclusion in her column, many of which, which many of you will doubt that sort of read. My friend Wayne put all this stuff on his computer for me and it's comes very easy to read. My own writing is terrible. So, this tendency is the bulk of what it is my own sort of summary of records. And I know that it's all general notes, observations 20 year period 1977 to 1996. The location is Ganges inlet harbor area waterfront. The annual and monthly averages, the averages of precipitation have been recalculated for the 20 year period 1977 to 1996 inclusion. I have all sorts of separate tables here, but you've also got the graph to look at that. I can to on that the conversion factor for snow to determine precipitation is 10 inches to one inch, which is per Environment Canada. This factor is quite accurate when our snowfall is the result of easterly outflow conditions from the mainland. But westerly snowballs have an actual conversion factor of around seven inches to one inch, ie the snow is much wetter. And this is evident in the much the very much larger flicks is. For your information. Precipitation is recorded to two decimal points snowfall for one. That topic because when we convert snowfall, we just shift the function that we have to do. Under the heading of records, we now have a new record maximum annual precipitation. Not something to be proud of, but we do in 1996, a total of 51.28 inches or 130.25 centimeters was recorded. This slightly exceeds the previous maximum of 51.19 inches set in 1983. It's just something that most people know something about now. A new maximum of snowfall was reported also in 1996, with a total of 78.7 inches, which is equal to 199.9 centimeters. This dwarfs the previous known record of 31.5 inches or 80.01 centimeters set in 1980. Indeed, it is no less than exactly two and a half times greater than the entire 1980 total that record here. That's item three here. December 1996 gave us a new record maximum monthly precipitation with 14.94 inches or 37.95 centimeters measured together with a new record monthly snowfall of 52.7 inches or 133.86 centimeters. That was just fractionally less than Victoria if my records from Victoria correct, but it's a hell of a lot more than Vancouver. Okay, something we didn't want to talk about the comparison versus purposes this December snowfall alone with nearly double the previous record for a whole year. I can for the 24 hour period 4pm to 4pm which is my measuring time of December 28 to 29th also shattered any known hold 24 hour period record with a staggering 23.5 inches or 59.69 centimeters snowfall, which again for comparison, is nearly one and a half times the previous record for the whole month of December. Does that mean anything to anybody? During this 20 year period, the lowest annual precipitation recorded was 25.00 inches or 63.50 centimeters in 1985. Compare this to that new maximum I referred to earlier 51 point doing that to eight inches The driest period ever recorded was in 1986. And when I say ever I'm talking about record that I've got or have access to the driest period ever recorded was in 1986 Expo year, many you you'll remember that I'm sure when we enjoyed 58 continuous precipitation free days cheered up in my one eye. But a lot of you remember that wondering

Unknown Speaker 15:39
the present record 24 hour precipitation occurred on January the 17th to the 18th of 1986, when 3.81 inches or 96.8 millimeters of rain fell in that 124 hour period is of some interest that in one in the same year 1986 We experienced both the driest period ever recorded and the wettest 24 hour day. In addition to the several new records described above, the month of April 1996 also established a new record of precipitation with 4.65 inches or 118.1 millimeters. My next section is called observations of the 20 year picture with a hint of forecast, which is what can be referred to was snowfall. As can be clearly seen from the graph, which I hope you've never seen of the reference period of time after virtually every year of heavy snowfall, we see a below too much below average snowfall the following year. Precipitation most years and again this can best be seen from the graph. After a much above average level of precipitation, we see a marked reduction. The following year, toward or below the 20 year average. Equally, we can see the same trend but in reverse after low precipitation years. Stating the obvious. This is all part of the process of averaging, which latter I find very useful and informative. Our weather does work out to average, it doesn't matter how you cut the shelf or the machine matter how it is today, or tomorrow, you can be sure that over a reasonable period of time, they'll get back to the average, which is why it's of interest. These books going back to 1941. I got one even further than that very little difference in the basic averages, then to compare to today. Though it takes some courage and indeed for hardiness to predict weather without an even with the most sophisticated computer models. I think for 1997 We could take some guidance and comfort from notes one and two above. Interestingly, at the midpoint of January timeline writing we have total comfortably below the month average of precipitation, all of which is in the form of rain, no snowfall. I have a little sticker here which sort of shows again a fully digital time forecast. Because the very next day, it started to rain and it just wouldn't stop. So we wound up January with a total precipitation of 6.7 or seven inches compared to the new average of 5.3 inches. So where we were one day way below a couple of weeks later, we've gone way over the top. Incidentally, I would want to sort of make a similar reference to the time right at this particular time this month, because as of yesterday, we had a grand total of 1.21 injured less than a quarter an inch of rain. So compared with what should have been 1.66 to be average, we went nicely in position but we walked outside today

Unknown Speaker 19:32
offsetting this optimism. December 1996 was the 14th consecutive month of below or much below our usual standard of weather. January continued in that so it's the 15th Judging from the porch, now coming in quite regularly, please remember now mean middle January it would appear that pretty much all of Western Canada has suffered through a similar very poor year, you will no doubt hurt the short term things over your radio. When comparing the new 20 year table of averages to those of the previous 10 years 9986 to 1995 December 1996 has created significant increases in snowfall averages both for that particular month and for the year. We can also see now for that you have to do with these things. Don't suppose you're really interested, this is my monthly tabulation. We can also see that seven of the 12 months last year reported a higher than average precipitation or all this is part of why we say it's been a bad year. We finally the new 20 year table of averages also shows that once again July is our driest month but naught point seven nine inches which is 20.1 millimeters. And December has fractionally edged out November as our weakest month at 6.7 cubic inches or 17 millimeters in collector under the heading of phenomena on December 29 of 1996 following that major snowfall, I observe Ganges inlet to and beyond the spirit of water be to be covered shorter shore with small flows in what appeared to be mush come soft ice, covered quite deeply in pure smell. A singularly strange and highly unusual condition that I have never before seeing in our pocket the sheet. Perhaps you saw the picture and Driftwood taken by a contributor showing some of this in Ganges harbor. In regard to that, I actually found Tony Richards and he was going to try to get out but his son had taken the four wheel drive and he couldn't get up to take a picture of the whole shootin match while you would have seen a more dramatic picture. On December the 20th 1951 in Sherelle, Quebec, I experienced my first and only similar but much more dramatic phenomenon. On that occasion in the space of about 30 minutes, the Richelieu River at its confluence with the St. Lawrence River transformed from a waterway with flying ferry to a frozen surface, which bought our weight as we walked across the downtown Sherelle 20. And moreover many of you ever seen such a thing. Because if you have you're very, very lucky people, it doesn't happen to men. In Quebec, it happened I think, the flight when I was referred to it earlier, once in a lifetime, it really was here we had today, not dissimilar in effect to our own bad day independence, the snow fell heavily temperature plummeted. And I would go into walk my plant on the one side of the river over the bridge to downtown to get lunch and the local collectors talking in fluent French which only barely understood, told me not to be stupid for profit by knowing the work I didn't believe this being British just over therefore knew. But I decided I would be discreet and I take the cable farrier, gosh. So along with all the other people made the same decision, we went down to the river bank where the cable ferry across to and fro from from the marine industry side and Terrell industry side this rail downtown. And we see the ferry on the other side of the river. And I hear these guys talking and I hear something which seemed to indicate to me it's going to tie up. So I said What does it mean? Do you mean it's going to get it's not coming back? Or how do we get advice you know, she told me not to go over the bridge. One man here just watched. Let me tell you a bit more first but it was incredible. The snow is coming down. You can still see surf, it's coming down and the wind is blowing. And the river is quite big. And the waves were in the normal fashion. And in front of my eyes literally. These crafted wave suddenly became rounded. In about five more minutes, no more. We were very shudder. Everything stopped. The water literally stopped. I swear it wasn't five minutes after that. When one local French Quebec put his foot on the step onto the road where just half an hour before the water. God do you think you've got a connection upstairs? his foot shanking up to an angle. But it didn't go right through. He put the other foot, as I say, said earlier, within 30 minutes, we'd all gone and came back. Now that is, that's just incredibly nice 1920 below on the scale. And the significance was there wasn't that call, right until that night. And I'd been told, and, you know, being from England fresh, didn't really believe that the launch would priests. And every everybody will be walking out in a matter of a day or so, here it was, have you been any new indiscriminant. In fact, I will consider therefore, that the snow on the inlet here to be a once in a lifetime experience, possibly even a once in a 100 year occurrence. The general area, the Gulf Islands is in my experience a little troubled by thunderstorms, either by their frequency, or by their severity. The severe thunderstorm that struck our area in the late afternoon of December the 10s of 99 District remember that one could well be categorized as a somewhat rare occurrence. Similarly, hail storms are relatively infrequent visitors. And even when they do occur, they are rarely of notable severity. Both of these storm types have something of a common denominator in that they both generated from the combination of temperature differentials and the expansion factor type of the air or atmosphere prevailing at that particular time. I don't want to go into that that's meteorology, and you don't want to be my again sorry.

Unknown Speaker 27:12
In a thunderstorm, or report any heavy rainstorm. The ultimate size of the raindrops is determined by the velocity of the vertical air currents in the very unstable cloud formation. Sometimes in their up and down passages, these raindrops become super cool. That is, their internal temperature falls below not degrees centigrade or 32 Fahrenheit in the old days, but their skin tension permits them to remain in liquid form. anybody's seen that ever. Basically, if these drops are sufficient agitated, they will set up the ice whilst airborne dusts hail, but sometimes that skin tension holds the drop in tact and to impact on the ground building tree branches or whatever. At which point, there is an immediate transition to the phenomenon we call freezing rain and which manifests itself in a glaze of clear ice. Now quite frequently, people talk about freezing rain and isn't freezing rain they did ordinary rain kicking on the ground, well below freezing temperature not the same thing at all. This is a condition not to be confused in any way with hail or a Spanish. Snow itself of course is through an aqua spavor that is to you and me walk away from speak now a little bit about temperatures. Although I have laboratory type thermometers, I do not have the approved intallation. I therefore record only the unusual temperatures of any particular day or days. And no I have proven to my own satisfaction that my readings are accurate within plus or minus one degrees centigrade. They must be recognized for what they are and you wish for guidance only. One of the most important weather related features of 1996 Was it significant below total hours of sunshine. I have no apparatus for this actual measurement. But my personal observations were recently confirmed in a report Environment Canada, which indicated that 1996 was indeed a year well below average in terms of sunshine. I know Tony then, that the spring and summer temperatures were generally below normal and the fall and the winter temperatures despite the extreme snowfall tended to be normal to slightly above normal. The coldest temperatures are recorded. Were a low of minus eight degrees centigrade and a high of minus 3.5 degrees centigrade on December For 2820 nines and a low of minus 10 degrees centigrade and a high of minus 2.5 On December the 29th circuit, those two sound like the same, one is a slightly colder day daytime temperature one is a spectacle quarter nighttime temperature the secondary in the warmest temperature I reported was 32.3 degrees centigrade on July the 13th.

Unknown Speaker 30:30
I should note here because not everyone seemed to understand this in case it was not apparent in the opening remarks, precipitation is the amount is the recorded amount of all rainfall plus the water coolant of all snowfall. snow on the other hand is recorded separately as snow only. Particularly in heavy and for prolonged snowfall. For an accurate determination of the snowfall amount, it is important to be measured frequently on regularly retrieved reclaimed ground to avoid error due to compact.

Unknown Speaker 31:16
Testing 123.

Unknown Speaker 31:23
Whether y is the goal find in general and short shipping island in particular, tend to have what might well be called micro weather. So, for instance, on this island, there was at least one area where the climate is significantly poor than the majority the island. Specifically, that area between rock crusher corner and the top of Lee's Hill, you all know that. Okay. In my experience, that shadow with Maxwell metro area is almost always colder, wetter and subjected to more and longer periods of snow than probably any developed parts of the islands. Carrying this observation a little further. I note that Galliano which in a straight line is only four or five miles from Ganges has significantly less precipitation than our Ganges area roughly in the order of 40% Less no 25% less total precipitation, they can brag that recon. The lesser snowfall, in my opinion, is totally related to the outflow conditions. referred to earlier Galliano they were relatively minor as an island is the first impedance to the surface airflow, the air mash would have a shorter contact with a warming water and therefore a reduced ability to pick up water vapor. The lower elevations of the island would mean less autographic lifting. What a graphic gonna what order graphics really means that when there's an obstruction, the mesh Congress has to go up and over on the type of calibrating is border graphics, you will see autographic cloud when you look from here to Vancouver, frequently big white blobs on our side of the mountain of the motion that I'm sure that's autographic cloud. The lower elevations there and it would then mean less autographic lifting which in turn would mean less cooling, and thus less precipitation which these temperatures would be snow. The lesser rainfall is probably related to the islands greater distance from Vancouver Island mountains and from our own mountain spine.

Unknown Speaker 33:57
Finally, when I was keeping records on Galliano, I was astonished to discover that there was an area on main island, again only three or four miles away. And in fact from my weather station, this weather station, Monaco quarter and a Fleetline. There was an area on May 9 That was possibly desert like the records there were kept for many years by a retired Army Colonel whose name from my memory was hunt shabby, Ivan and much respected Island character. Like my own, his records were returned federally, and they're not readily accessible. I hope that what I've been able to tell you and show you has been of some interest, and perhaps edification, and I thank you for inviting me here today and listening so politely

Unknown Speaker 35:02
I have a question. I don't know whether I'm being very punch or not. But no, no. But my question is, I don't know how that Mary has been asked these sorts of things. But I'm with an archivist with the railway. And I don't know how many times I've been asked, What was the weather like, on the 14th of July 1947? As I was boarding the train, robbery or dilute? What do you do with your records? Once you finish compiling? Do you put them in an archive? Because I started with can answer questions like that?

Unknown Speaker 35:38
Well, when I was at Ghana doing this, what I was supposed to be restricted officially, we compiled weather information. At the end of each month, we have to do a rewrite the entire month record of the shepherd sheets, send them to Vancouver, and they were returned. And when I came over here, I volunteered to continue to do the same thing here at my home. I live by the shading club, if any of you don't know. And at that point, the Federal people said the longtime weather reporter is at showmanship. And I realized that Shan Shan was just about 300 yards above where I live in a straight up line. I just felt there was no point in me officially keeping records, just because I'm on the waterfront where this chat. That's it. Thank you, Colin, everyone. That's it. He'd been doing it for good many years. And it was kind of sad to me that he quit quite suddenly, without telling anyone. And they'd had a change of staff in the weather operation in Vancouver. And they didn't think to come back to me. Until first they'd gone to a couple of other people. And records were not kept too well for a while. In fact, they're still a little bit haphazard to this day. The second thing about those whether keeping records which relates back to what you say, I spoke with microclimates, the president records are being kept right in that singularly bad area where it makes our island look pretty damn poor. He caught it Saltspring Siberia so my question therefore I've answered by saying after giving up the the official weather books, which are books I then found an easier way. I have an iPod calendar every year because my wife had organization and my big section so I quit writing in it, you know, when the era was sunshine and clouds type of flow disorder stuff. And I just record the actual precipitation very accurately, the snow and any extremes plus or minus with temperature as a whole the 2020 years 21 years I'll show you this

Unknown Speaker 38:51
I'm sure Mary would like to see some of the fruits of your Labor's and the archive. Well,

Unknown Speaker 38:57
I I have to say Valerie Linuxes is quite diligent. She seemed to like report in this weather stuff. In that December business. She called me no less than three times in one day and that you know, for from her her where she was locked in in Victoria, to make sure I get through her so she could go on her computer and email it to Tony over here. Oh, my God, Tony could get off it'll backside and get it from me directly. Valerie had a pretty competent reporter. And she writes very well to I, I feel much more at ease giving Valerie information because she rarely, rarely makes a mistake. Previously, I have to tell you, it would just completely give the stuff when it didn't give it in writing. I can guarantee that a major error in the paper reported a lot of difficulty explaining the errors and it's no good to come in with putting in a little correction. People have forgotten, you know So what is in the drift? What is your work? So we have a car? Do you really we have? Give us a break. I gave framed Richard, first information about 20 years ago. And that was the time that taught English for the faculty. Any other questions that I might have? Because

Unknown Speaker 40:35
I celebrated my 80th birthday just a couple of days ago. I'm not old enough. No, I know all of it. I wasn't in England until 1950 51. So I knew more about what was there prior to 51. And I do want to hear I know from pictures and stuff that I have seen about the snowfall that you refer to, obviously, with a lot more than we just had that one? Yes, well, the only picture that I saw indicated the snow depths greater than we experienced here. I think one of the things about that last major snowfall, there was not nearly as much difference due to area as we normally experience it, but it was more or less equal, right the way through even the higher elevation didn't get that much more than we did. I have some contacts at the top and it surprised me that they only had an inch here or half an inch there more than read it. Again, it was different Harvard review over time, remember wait a bit. Now I did not treat the pros. No, I'm talking about the things read the bush no condition, which it's a combination of a whole slew of things. It is incredibly unusual in my book, I've never heard of it again in Sherelle. Just that one occasion. And I was lucky enough to be present when that occurred. So when I saw it here, I recognized it. Now I've seen it. In fact, I've reported if you've got it in your archives, I've reported more than once through Tony that the internet has proven over as far as go down and or something like that, you know, if not, not only what I've seen a more difficult situation I've seen the short sharp frozen but Kalyanam currents are stronger, their tides are stronger, they're notch that's more significant to sea ice there than just a shear here because we have a very gentle tidal effect here in our anugerah I've seen Pat Bay frozen over have you did anyone know we didn't go down when was this ridiculous with this package ember. Anybody else flows in around the property is the same stuff. This is not ice per se. The temperature went away because saltwater can freeze that easily. This is a salt marsh. It's specific gravity or whatever can be floating. But it had some depth because I'm just so disappointed that Tony wasn't able to get down and take a picture looking at the entire inlet and luckily that contributor did take a fracture down the bottom area in the paper you've all seen that but it was areas some much bigger, there's tabletop where you could see it below the water and then it built up in the top was completely white. Just pure Whitesnake yes to some degree only it was a snowbird well again, thank you

Unknown Speaker 44:30
very much the best weather oh that's a very a very general question. I don't mean in any particular year what the best weather I ever before. Oh, without a shadow don't export Yeah. That was incredibly areas. Oh, I see what area topographically

Unknown Speaker 45:02
It depends on what you're used for yardstick. In many ways jantjies is a good at IQ competition, it's it's subject to less extreme to some degree. You can say that the shoe fish area does quite well, but I am from the Ganges area. So I prefer to think again, he just isn't that much better. You remember when I spoke about recorded 101 degrees Fahrenheit maximum temperature. When I first came to the Gulf Island back in 1959, or their approach, I came over golfing to do shorter. And nowadays, the golf course, you probably all know that nothing like it is now. We had sand greens and a grass berm absolutely dry. It was killing come over in July. I'm trying both there because that was in my opinion, looking back, particularly looking back, it was probably the highest temperature area on the entirety of shortcodes. And if any shows in the south end in my to the extent of my knowledge and I qualify, it has nothing significant to offer at all. I'm sorry Shelton.

Unknown Speaker 46:29
You can't come to real trouble. Thank you so much. I just so appreciate your meticulous records and, and the fact you get up every day and do that and you'd like you to come back in five years. I just like to thank you. And I'd like to say that you are in our archives now Tony fire records every every afternoon event.

Unknown Speaker 46:55
I think if I'd known that Ken would not with all his persuasive ability. Got me here today.

Unknown Speaker 47:01
Thank you so much. Well, thank you all